1. Key indicators
Figure 1 – Key indicators overview
|EU-level targets||2030 target|
|Participation in early childhood education
(from age 3 to starting age of compulsory primary education)
|Low achieving eighth-graders in digital skills||< 15%||32.8%13||:||:||:|
|Low achieving 15-year-olds in:||Reading||< 15%||22.2%09, b||31.4%18||19.7%09, b||22.5%18|
|Early leavers from education and training (age 18-24)||< 9%||4.7%||7.6%||13.8%||9.9%|
|Exposure of VET graduates to work based learning||≥ 60%||:||:||:||:|
|Tertiary educational attainment (age 25-34)||≥ 45% (2025)||24.0%||39.0%||32.2%||40.5%|
|Participation of adults in learning (age 25-64)||≥ 47% (2025)||:||:||:||:|
|Other contextual indicators|
|Education investment||Public expedienture on education as a percentage of GDP||4.6%||4.2%||5.0%||4.7%19|
|Expenditure on public and private institutions per FTE/student in € PPS||ISCED 1-2||:12,d||€4 77718||€6 07212,d||€6 35917,d|
|ISCED 3-4||€3 90712,d||€5 04718||€7 36613,d||€7 76217,d|
|ISCED 5-8||:12,d||:18||€9 67912,d||€9 99517,d|
|Early leavers from education and training (age 18-24)||Native||4.7%||7.6%||12.4%||8.7%|
|Upper secondary level attainment (age 20-24, ISCED 3-8)||93.2%||89.7%||79.1%||84.3%|
|Tertiary educational attainment (age 25-34)||Native||24.0%||39.1%||33.4%||41.3%|
Source: Eurostat (UOE, LFS, COFOG); OECD (PISA). Further information can be found in Annex I and in Volume 1 (ec.europa.eu/education/monitor). Notes: The 2018 EU average on PISA reading performance does not include ES; the indicator used (ECE) refers to early-childhood education and care programmes which are considered by the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) to be ‘educational’ and therefore constitute the first level of education in education and training systems – ISCED level 0; FTE = full-time equivalent; b = break in time series, d = definition differs, u = low reliability, := not available, 09 = 2009, 12 = 2012, 13 = 2013, 17 = 2017, 18 = 2018, 19 = 2019.
Figure 2 - Position in relation to strongest and weakest performers
Source: DG Education, Youth, Sport and Culture, based on data from Eurostat (LFS 2020, UOE 2019) and OECD (PISA 2018).
- Slovakia is taking major steps to improve educational outcomes, including through the school curricular reform and measures to enhance inclusiveness and mitigate the COVID 19 impact. The well-being of teachers and students needs improvement too.
- Slovakia implements compulsory pre-school education from age 5 from September 2021.
- The tertiary attainment rate is close to the EU average. Measures are being taken to improve the quality, governance and internationalisation of higher education.
- Slovakia is continuing its reforms in vocational education and training, while adult learning still requires policy attention.
3. A focus on well-being in education and training
The well-being of students is already addressed by different policies, and a more systemic approach is planned. Over recent years, the well-being of students and educational staff has been recognised as a serious challenge, which further aggravated during the COVID-19 pandemic. Slovakia has a policy framework in place on child protection1 and cyber safety2, as well as a national mental health programme3, which includes action in the field of education. Standards on well-being are present in the state curriculum, e.g. for seventh graders in lower secondary education. These consist of recognising bullying, extremism and vandalism, the ability to explain causes of various social conflicts, and proposing assistance to people with disabilities and older people. The new curricular reform, prepared under the National Recovery and Resilience Plan (NRRP), aims to integrate well-being further at primary and lower-secondary level. At tertiary level, as of September 2020 internal quality assurance systems must guarantee protection of students, employees and applicants against intolerance and discrimination. The new digital strategy for education 20304 will reflect the European Framework for the Digital Competences of Educators, ensuring a strategic approach to digital well-being. The new 2030 national strategy for equality, inclusion and participation of Roma puts special focus on measures against discrimination and on anti-Roma racism.
Slovakia has taken a strategic approach against bullying, however, strengthened measures may be needed targeting disadvantaged students. The consequences of bullying can be severe, both in the short- and long-term, with physical and mental impacts (Pappas, S., 2013). The anti-bullying strategy for schools, based on Directive No 36/2018, defines bullying and cyberbullying, while providing guidance on preventive and remedial action. Schools have integrated the Directive into their internal regulations, and are supported by their prevention coordinators. According to the OECD (PISA), more than one in four secondary-level students in Slovakia (28.3%) reported being bullied at least a few times a month (EU 22.1%). Significantly more students from disadvantaged socio-economic backgrounds reported being a victim of bullying (31.8% vs 25.4%), highlighting the social and territorial inequalities. Low achievers are much more exposed to frequent bullying than high achievers (39.8% vs 18.6%). Given the high impact of bullying on reading performance (28 points vs EU: 23.2 points) and students’ well-being, this could further enhance the educational gaps between pupils with low and high socio-economic background, which calls for action supporting the disadvantaged. As cyberbullying was reported by 84% of the victims of bullying, representing 6% of the total population aged 9-16 (Izrael. P. et al, 2020), online safety needs strengthening too.
Creating a more cooperative and favourable learning environment, and enhancing socio-emotional learning, could improve the school climate and students’ academic outcomes. The school inspectorate’s 2018/2019 report found that in the majority of inspected schools classroom teaching did not encourage free expression of opinions or active discussion, and students often lacked a sense of security. In VET schools, 83.3% of students did not perceive the learning climate as favourable (SSI, 2019). In international comparison, the proportion of Slovak lower-secondary school students who felt high teacher or classmate support, or were satisfied with school, was below the WHO average (Inchley J, et al., 2020). Research shows that supportive teacher-students relations positively affect student achievement, both directly and indirectly through a greater sense of belonging at school (OECD, 2019b). According to the OECD (PISA), 31% of Slovak students do not feel part of a school community, which affects their performance: on average they scored 21 points less in reading. Slovak students were also among those who were least likely to report student cooperation (OECD, 2019b). Individualised support to students, a more favourable learning climate and more student cooperation would benefit disadvantaged students in particular, thus contributing to a more equitable and resilient education system.
Improving the well-being of teachers, combined with strengthened support and guidance, are essential to enhance the well-being of students. Not all teachers are equally well prepared to support students’ well-being. Pedagogical faculties, which prepare primary school teachers, focus on pedagogy and psychology more than other faculties, which run complementary teacher training programmes only. Slovak teachers have the lowest perceived recognition of the teaching profession (OECD 2019a), and the second lowest enthusiasm in teaching in the EU, affecting students’ learning outcomes (OECD, 2019b). The pandemic and the closure of schools have additionally affected many teachers’ physical (35%) and mental (over 40%) well-being5. Furthermore, 34% of surveyed teachers would not speak in a school environment about their psychological problems, but 99.4% think it is important to promote teachers’ mental health and well-being6. Moreover, the well-being of teachers can impact student well-being and achievement. A more resilient teaching workforce could be built by addressing teachers’ needs, improving the relevance of initial and in-service teacher training (OECD, 2020), and more focus on teachers’ well-being. The ‘Teachers’ national project, funded by the European Social Fund, is a step in the right direction (Box 1).
Slovakia took measures to support teachers’ and students’ well-being during COVID-19. During 2019/2020 and 2020/2021, schools were closed for 38 weeks7. Experts point out the increased risks for children in this context, like cyberbullying, including sexual abuse, a high rise in domestic violence, and deterioration of children's mental health, disciplinary habits and basic social skills8. The policy and support measures provided to schools included the 2020/2021 guide9, the scheme on improving students’ well-being and the school climate, and webinars on teachers’ well-being and resuming onsite teaching. The non-public sector has delivered online counselling10 and well-being courses in schools11. At tertiary level, the number of students with depression or anxiety rose during lockdown, and nearly one third of respondents reported suffering from them, while one half reported experiencing excessive stress. However, only 16% of students saw higher education institutions (HEIs) provide psychological and prevention measures despite existing support centres12. In 2020, the government supported 8 development projects in higher education to establish new or expand existing student support centres.
Box 1: Professional development of teachers and support during COVID-19 (ESF)
The national ‘Professional development of teachers’ project aims to support teachers’ continuing development, review professional standards and develop a new standard for career counsellors. It promotes networking and the exchange of innovations in teaching, and aims to train 8000 teachers (ca. 10% of Slovak teachers). In 2020, the project was amended to mitigate the impact of COVID-19 on pupils and teachers. So far EUR 271708.95 have been deployed to enhance the online platform13 offering services to schools, pedagogues and civic society actors, provide specialist counselling for staff, parents and students, spring schools, etc. By February 2021, more than 5000 educators had been supported online, and 504 had taken training.
Total budget is EUR 6917756.19. The project is being implemented from February 2020 until December 2022 by the Methodological and Pedagogical Centre, and the State Pedagogical Institute.
4. Investing in education and training
Investment in education and training remains comparatively low despite decreasing student numbers. General government expenditure on education as a share of GDP has remained below the EU average, standing at 4.2% in 2019 (EU 4.7%). Spending as a share of total public expenditure grew to 9.8% in 2019, close to the EU average (10.0%). However, annual public spending per post-primary student in purchasing power standards remains among the lowest in the EU: in 2018, it was 4311.3 for lower-secondary students, 5132.5 for upper-secondary and 6831.6 for tertiary students. The low spending per student persists14 even though the pre-school and school age population (4-16 years-old) in Slovakia decreased by 1.9% between 2010 and 2020. Furthermore, teachers’ low salaries limit the attractiveness of the teaching profession. Teachers’ average actual salaries at pre-primary, primary and general secondary levels of education range from 56% to 75% of those of other tertiary-educated workers in Slovakia; they also remain far below the 2020 EU-22 average for teachers (OECD, 2021b).
Slovakia plans measures to improve the effectiveness of spending and decision-making in education. Under the amended Act No 596/2003 Coll. of 14 April15, from 1 January 2022 the system of financing and governing schools, most school facilities and kindergartens for children with special educational needs will be unified under the education ministry. Furthermore, a network of 40 regional educational centres will be established with RRF support to provide methodological assistance to schools, in particular during the implementation of the curricular reform. To ensure the network’s success, the participatory approach needs to be applied, and the scope of assistance needs to be clearly defined. In higher education, performance contracts will be introduced to improve the relevance of the courses offered.
The Recovery and Resilience Facility (RRF) will support investment in educational infrastructure at all levels. Under its NRRP, Slovakia aims to create 12352 places in early childhood education to implement the legal entitlement for 3-year-olds planned for 2025. At least 252 upper-secondary schools will be refurbished to improve their accessibility to students with disabilities, double shifts will be eliminated in 49 primary schools, and 211 school libraries will be established or modernised to provide a high-quality learning environment to disadvantaged students. Some university buildings will be refurbished to improve their energy efficiency.
Slovakia intensifies efforts to digitalise education and boost digital skills. This year, the Education Minister launched a ‘digital leap’ action in education, starting with a EUR 40 million investment in digital technologies16. The digitalisation of schools should be aided by a further allocation of around EUR 229 million from the RRF. In addition to the investment in ICT equipment and connectivity, under its NRRP Slovakia will establish a network of digital methodological coordinators, and develop online upper-secondary school-leaving exam, digital learning materials and training for teachers. The national digital skills strategy is planned for adoption in 2022, and at least 172 800 older people and disadvantaged people will receive training in digital skills.
Box 2: The National Recovery and Resilience Plan (NRRP)
The Slovak Plan17 is worth a total amount of EUR 6.58 billion, of which EUR 6.3 billion in grants under the RRF. Investments in education and skills related measures represent over 15 % of the Slovak grants. Slovakia plans to expand early childhood education and care, reform school curricula supported by digitalisation, reform teacher education and professional requirements, improve inclusiveness at all levels of education, curb Roma segregation and mitigate the COVID-19 impact on students. It also aims to improve the governance, quality and internationalisation of higher education, as well as boost digital skills.
5. Modernising early childhood and school education
Slovakia has one of the lowest participation rates in early childhood education and care, but substantial reforms and investments are under way to make it more accessible and inclusive. In 2019, the participation rate of children over 3 in early childhood education was 77.8%, significantly below the EU average of 92.8% (Figure 3). The participation of children with special educational needs is minimal: in 2019, only 12.1% out of an estimated 14000 children with disabilities (0-7 years old) had access to early childhood intervention services. Almost 77% of teachers in mainstream ECEC did not follow any training on teaching children with disabilities, and the related training offer is lacking (To dá rozum, 2019). The reform of the financing system for pre-primary education planned for 2022 under the NRRP aims to ensure sustained national public financial support. Legal entitlement to ECEC for 4-year-olds is planned for 2024, and for 3-year-olds for 2025. At least 10000 ECEC staff will be trained in inclusive education, and early care for children below 3 from marginalised Roma communities will be piloted.
Slovakia is implementing compulsory pre-primary education for 5-year-olds from September 2021. To ensure successful implementation, Slovakia has invested in equipment, learning materials, support for children with a mother tongue other than Slovak18, and in integrating children with special educational needs in mainstream kindergartens. Creation of new kindergarten capacities and inclusive teams continues to be supported with EU funds. Since the new legal framework authorises home schooling and pre-primary education providers other than kindergartens, the quality assurance and inclusive environment will need to be ensured in those settings as well.
Figure 3 – Participation in early childhood education by age, 2019 (%)
Source: UOE, educ_uoe_enra20; educ_uoe_enra18; educ_uoe_enra19
Slovakia is preparing a comprehensive curricular reform to improve educational outcomes and key competences. According to the 2018 PISA, the level of basic skills of Slovak teenagers is below the EU average, and the proportion of low achievers is significantly above the EU average (31% vs 22.5% in reading, 29% vs 22.3% in science, and 25% vs 22.9% in mathematics). Furthermore, students’ socio-economic background strongly affects their performance, and the urban-rural gap in education outcomes is significant (Figure 4). To address these weaknesses, Slovakia aims to introduce a curricular reform at the primary and lower secondary levels, creating a new integrated and competence-based curriculum and opening up the textbook market. The aim is also to improve pupils’ transversal skills. The language skills of students whose mother tongue is different from the language of instruction will be additionally supported. The reform will be supported by the RRF, including better integration of ICT in teaching and learning, reforms of initial teacher education programmes, and of continuing professional development. However, the low attractiveness of the teaching profession may hamper the efficient implementation of the reforms. Further organisational measures may also be needed to reduce the city–rural divide in education (OECD, 2021a).
Figure 4 – The rural-city gap in reading performance of secondary school students, PISA 2018
Source: PISA 2018 Database, https://www.oecd.org/pisa/data/2018database/ (accessed on 15 May 2020), (OECD, 2021).
Slovakia is preparing an inclusive education strategy and plans other systemic measures to improve equity, strongly supported by EU funds. The proportion of pupils with special educational needs placed in fully separate educational settings at 5.63% is the highest among the 23 EU countries surveyed (EU-23: 1.55%) (EASNIE, 2020). The 2020-2021 ‘Zero’ Action Plan of the upcoming inclusive education strategy is being implemented, and the strategy is to be adopted in 2021. The recent EU report on disability equity in Slovakia identifies the 9-year ‘Variant A’ educational programme for pupils with moderate intellectual disability as the biggest concern. Students following this programme can obtain only a primary level of education (ISCED1) at the most (European Commission, 2021). Under its NRRP, in 2023 Slovakia will amend the School Act to allow those students to gain ISCED2 in vocational education. Furthermore, Slovakia will redefine the concept of special educational needs, introduce an entitlement to inclusive support measures in ECEC and schools, adopt standards for barrier-free learning spaces, and strengthen desegregation of Roma in education.
Slovakia has adopted its 2030 strategy for equality, inclusion and Roma participation. In education, the main objectives of the strategy19 are defined around the 3 key areas: (i) support for children and students, and family care; (ii) support for teachers' professional skills; and (iii) support for creating a stimulating environment for pupils from marginalised Roma communities. A European Commission infringement procedure against Slovakia on the segregation of Roma children in education is ongoing.
Slovakia plans comprehensive measures to prevent young people from leaving education and training early. Despite a recent improvement (by 1.7 pps since 2017), the share of early leavers from education and training strongly deteriorated in 2020, reaching 7.6% (EU 9.9%) from a low base of 4.7% in 2010 (EU 13.8%). Eastern Slovakia continues to have the highest rate (12%)20. To address this negative trend, with ESF support Slovakia plans to reform the counselling and prevention systems, and set up a robust early warning system. According to a 2021 survey by the Comenius Institute, COVID-19 had a negative impact on students’ learning, leading to educational loss21. The government supported 471 schools in organising additional tutoring for pupils from April to June 202122. These measures are key, since in 2020 the rate of Slovak young people (aged 15-29) who are neither students, employees nor trainees rose to 15.2% from 14.5% in 201923, following the EU trend.
6. Modernising vocational education and training and adult learning
In 2020, VET graduates seem to fare better on the labour market than their peers completing general secondary education. In 2020, despite the 4% annual decrease in the employment rate to 80.7%, recent VET graduates (age 20-34) have higher employment perspectives than those finishing general education whose employment rate dramatically dropped by 17.5% to 69.3% (Labour Force Survey, 2020). Total enrolment in upper secondary VET in 2019 stayed strong at 67.5%, well above the EU average of 48.4% (UOE, 2019).
Slovakia is transforming VET to meet labour market needs and employers’ expectations. In early 2021, the education ministry submitted for public consultation an amendment of the VET Act, to come into effect on 1 January 2022. It aims to: (i) introduce experimental verification of study programmes; (ii) strengthen the influence of employers on the provision of secondary VET; (c) facilitate entry of SMEs/self-employed people to dual education thanks to supra-corporate training centres, reduce the administrative burden for companies and allow for company scholarship; and (d) introduce dual education in the study programmes for health professions and ECEC teachers. Meanwhile, the regions of Prešov and Banská Bystrica are piloting solutions improving the quality of their VET, based on the design set out in the context of the Catching-up Regions Initiative supported by the World Bank and the European Commission, which combines soft components (curricula revision, teacher training, inclusive measures, regional cooperation platforms) and hard investments24.
The NRRP addresses VET partially. Secondary VET schools will be mostly covered by the general measures in education, including digitalisation, fostered accessibility, elimination of Roma segregation in education, prevention of early-school leaving and, more specifically, by the reform of lower-secondary VET programmes. Furthermore, the ratio of professionally-oriented Bachelor's degree programmes should increase to 10% (end-2024) and adequate practical training premises should be ensured (Cedefop and ReferNet, 2021). Measures mitigating the COVID-19 pandemic’s impact on VET learners, particularly the disadvantaged, are being introduced. As for dual VET, companies were supported to remain in the system mainly through the compensation of salaries for in-company trainers and the motivational contribution for newly contracted learners during 2020/2021.
The COVID-19 pandemic affected adult learning participation. The 2020 participation rate (25-64 years old in the last 4 weeks) is 2.8%, significantly below the 2020 EU target (15%) and 0.8 pp. less than in 2019. The share of adults with low qualifications dropped by 1.3 pps to 7.3%. The percentage of low-qualified employed adults fell further below the EU average of 55.8%, from 37.8% to 36.4%. The share of low-qualified and unemployed adults engaging in learning remains statistically insignificant. The proportion of Slovak adults (16-74) with basic digital skills decreased by 5% to 54%, 2 pps under the EU average.
Slovakia’s adult learning and education system remains fragmented without proper policy acknowledgement, governance structure or financing. The 2020-2024 Government Manifesto pledges to make the system functional by enlarging the quality accessible training offer for the employed and vulnerable groups to help them fare better on the labour market. Adults’ skills remained largely unaddressed by the NRRP, leaving the area heavily dependent on ESF funding. In March 2020, in the context of COVID-19, the education ministry issued instructions on accredited courses, specifying what could be taught online. The new lifelong learning strategy (under approval) will replace the 2008 strategy. The upcoming strategy should provide for the implementation of a systemic approach to adult learning, in particular the development of digital skills and skills according to the KOMPAS criteria.
7. Modernising higher education
Tertiary attainment rate is close to the EU average, but the gender gap is double. Between 2010 and 2020, the rate grew by 15 pps, and in 2020, Slovakia had 39% of adults between 25 and 34 holding a tertiary education degree. This is only slightly below the EU average (40.5%). The gender gap in favour of women has, however, widened and at 19.9 pps it was double the EU average (10.8 pps). Slovakia’s proportion of Master’s programme graduates at 84% in 2019 is the highest in the EU.
The employment rate of recent tertiary graduates exceeded the EU average and that of upper secondary vocational education and training. In 2020, the employment rate of recent tertiary graduates (aged 20-34) continued to increase and reached 84.9%, exceeding the EU average (83.7%) and the employment rate of upper-secondary VET graduates (80.7%)25. The latter dropped by 3.9 pps compared to 2019, likely resulting from COVID-19. The proportion of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) graduates remained limited in 2019 at 21.82% (EU 26%), essentially unchanged since 201426. The proportion of female STEM graduates out of the total female graduates (12.2%) is slightly below the EU average (14.7%), but is among the lowest in ICT, at 13.6% (EU 20.3%). In its NRRP, Slovakia plans reforms to improve the labour market relevance of Bachelor’s programmes. The employment rate of recent ISCED 6 graduates (aged 25-34) is the lowest among all tertiary graduates (65% in 2018) (OECD, 2019c).
Slovakia announces further reform measures to improve the quality, governance and internationalisation of higher education. Slovakia established a new system of accreditation, based on the legal framework adopted in 201827. It set new quality standards, increasing the importance of the internal quality assurance procedures. The 2021-2022 action plan for external quality assurance of HEIs in alignment with the Standards and Guidelines for Quality Assurance in the European Higher Education Area was developed with the support of Erasmus+28. Under its NRRP and additionally supported by the European Commission’s Technical Support Instrument, Slovakia intends to implement further reforms to change the governance and financing models, streamline the HEI network and boost internationalisation. Furthermore, Slovakia plans to establish scholarship programmes for international and domestic students, including for those with a disadvantaged background, and for international staff mobility. The 2030 strategy for internationalisation of higher education is to be adopted by end 2021. The education ministry also participates in the 'MICROBOL' project focusing on micro-credentials.
COVID-19 has boosted digital learning, but the digital skills of teaching staff need to be supported. During the COVID-19 lockdown in 2020 and 2021, HEIs mostly provided digital learning. In this context, the government supported projects on: (i) collecting best practices and developing guidelines for implementing virtual mobility and Collaborative Online International Learning (COIL); and (ii) developing courses in artificial intelligence and cybernetics taught in English and in the blended learning format29. According to the brief survey of the Slovak Accreditation Agency for Higher Education and the Slovak Student Council of Higher Education30, students have the necessary digital equipment and skills for online education, while the level of digital skills of HEI teachers vary.
Cedefop; ReferNet (2021), Slovakia: VET REF: developments in vocational education and training policy database. Cedefop monitoring and analysis of VET policies. [Unpublished].
Council of the European Union (2020), ‘Council Recommendation on the 2020 National Reform Programme of Slovakia and delivering a Council opinion on the 2020 Stability Programme of Slovakia’. https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:52020DC0525&from=EN
European Agency for Special Needs and Inclusive Education (2020), European Agency Statistics on Inclusive Education: 2018 Dataset Cross-Country Report. (J. Ramberg, A. Lénárt, and A. Watkins, eds.). Odense, Denmark, www.european-agency.org
European Commission (2021), European Semester 2020-2021 country fiche on disability equality - Slovakia. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.
European Commission/EACEA/Eurydice (2021), Teachers in Europe - Careers, Development, Well-being — 2021. Eurydice Report. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.
Government of the Slovak Republic (2020), Programové vyhlásenie vlády 2020 (Government Manifesto 2020), available at https://www.teraz.sk/download/135/programove-vyhlasenie-vlady.pdf
Inchley J, Currie D, Budisavljevic S, Torsheim T, Jåstad A, Cosma A et al., editors. (2020a), Spotlight on adolescent health and well-being. Findings from the 2017/2018 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) survey in Europe and Canada. International report. Volume 1. Key findings. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe; 2020. https://www.euro.who.int/en/health-topics/Life-stages/child-and-adolescent-health/health-behaviour-in-school-aged-children-hbsc/publications/2020/spotlight-on-adolescent-health-and-well-being.-findings-from-the-20172018-health-behaviour-in-school-aged-children-hbsc-survey-in-europe-and-canada.-international-report.-volume-1.-key-findings
International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA), TIMSS 2019 International Results in Mathematics and Science, Ina V.S. Mullis, Michael O. Martin, Pierre Foy, Dana L. Kelly, and Bethany Fishbein, https://timss2019.org/reports/wp-content/themes/timssandpirls/download-center/TIMSS-2019-International-Results-in-Mathematics-and-Science.pdf
Izrael. P. et al (2020), Správa z výskumu EU Kids Online IV Slovensko (Research report EU Kids Online IV Slovakia), https://www.ku.sk/images/dokumenty/ff/Sprava_z_vyskumu__EU_Kids_Online_Slovensko_2018_-_2020.pdf
Janková, M. (2020), Prevencia a riešenie šikanovania a kyberšikanovania v základných a stredných školách z pohľadu koordinátorov prevencie (Prevention and solution of bullying and cyberbullying in primary and secondary schools from the point of view of prevention coordinators), Bratislava, Education ministry/SCSTI, available at https://www.minedu.sk/data/att/17683.pdf
OECD (2019a), TALIS 2018 Results (Volume I): Teachers and School Leaders as Lifelong Learners, TALIS. OECD Publishing, Paris, http://www.oecd.org/education/talis/.
OECD (2019b Vol II), PISA 2018 Results (Volume II): Where All Students Can Succeed, PISA, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://doi.org/10.1787/acd78851-en
OECD (2019b Vol III), PISA 2018 Results (Volume III): What School Life Means for Students’ Lives, PISA, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://doi.org/10.1787/acd78851-en
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OECD (2020), Skills Strategy Slovak Republic: Assessment and Recommendations, OECD Skills Studies, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://doi.org/10.1787/bb688e68-en
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Pappas, S. (2013), ‘Long-Term Effects Of Bullying: Pain Lasts Into Adulthood (STUDY)’, Huffington Post, (2013), https://www.huffpost.com/entry/long-term-effects-of-bullying_n_2728190
State School Inspectorate (2019), Sprawa o stave a úrovni výchovy a vzdelávania v školách a školských zariadeniach v Slovenskej republikę v školskom roku 2018/2019, https://www.ssi.sk/wp-content/uploads/2020/12/sprava_18_19.pdf
To da rozum (2019), in Hellebrandt et al. (2020), https://www.minedu.sk/data/att/15944.pdf
Annex I: Key indicators sources
|Indicator||Eurostat online data code|
|Participation in early childhood education||educ_uoe_enra21|
|Low achieving eighth-graders in digital skills||IEA, ICILS.|
|Low achieving 15-year-olds in reading, maths and science||OECD (PISA)|
|Early leavers from education and training||Main data: edat_lfse_14.
Data by country of birth: edat_lfse_02.
|Exposure of VET graduates to work based learning||Data for the EU-level target is not available. Data collection starts in 2021. Source: EU LFS.|
|Tertiary educational attainment||Main data: edat_lfse_03.
Data by country of birth: edat_lfse_9912.
|Participation of adults in learning||Data for the EU-level target is not available. Data collection starts in 2022. Source: EU LFS.|
|Public expenditure on education as a percentage of GDP||gov_10a_exp|
|Expenditure on public and private institutions per student||educ_uoe_fini04|
|Upper secondary level attainment||edat_lfse_03|
Annex II: Structure of the education system
Source: European Commission/EACEA/Eurydice, 2021. The Structure of the European Education Systems 2021/2022: Schematic Diagrams. Eurydice Facts and Figures. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.
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