European Education Area Progress Report 2021

Education and Training Monitor 2021


1. Key indicators

Figure 1 – Key indicators overview
Latvia EU-27
2010 2020 2010 2020
EU-level targets 2030 target
Participation in early childhood education
(from age 3 to starting age of compulsory primary education)
≥ 96% 91.3%13 94.1%19 91.8%13 92.8%19
Low achieving eighth-graders in digital skills < 15% : : : :
Low achieving 15-year-olds in: Reading < 15% 17.6%09,b 22.4%18 19.7%09,b 22.5%18
Maths < 15% 22.6%09 17.3%18 22.7%09 22.9%18
Science < 15% 14.7%09 18.5%18 17.8%09 22.3%18
Early leavers from education and training (age 18-24) < 9% 12.9% 7.2% 13.8% 9.9%
Exposure of VET graduates to work based learning ≥ 60% : : : :
Tertiary educational attainment (age 25-34) ≥ 45% (2025) 34.7% 44.2% 32.2% 40.5%
Participation of adults in learning (age 25-64) ≥ 47% (2025) : : : :
Other contextual indicators
Education investment Public expedienture on education as a percentage of GDP 6.2% 5.8% 5.0% 4.7%19
Expenditure on public and private institutions per FTE/student in € PPS ISCED 1-2 €5 36612 €4 58018 €6 07212,d €6 35917,d
ISCED 3-4 €5 68412 €5 75818 €7 36613,d €7 76217,d
ISCED 5-8 €8 07212,d €6 84818 €9 67912,d €9 99517,d
Early leavers from education and training (age 18-24) Native 13.0% 7.2% 12.4% 8.7%
EU-born :u : 26.9% 19.8%
Non EU-born :u : 32.4% 23.2%
Upper secondary level attainment (age 20-24, ISCED 3-8) 80.3% 88.0% 79.1% 84.3%
Tertiary educational attainment (age 25-34) Native 34.4% 44.0% 33.4% 41.3%
EU-born :c :u 29.3% 40.4%
Non EU-born 43.8% 49.9% 23.1% 34.4%

Sources: Eurostat (UOE, LFS, COFOG); OECD (PISA). Further information can be found in Annex I and in Volume 1 ( Notes: The 2018 EU average on PISA reading performance does not include ES; the indicator used (ECE) refers to early-childhood education and care programmes which are considered by the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) to be ‘educational’ and therefore constitute the first level of education in education and training systems – ISCED level 0; FTE = full-time equivalent; b = break in time series, c = confidential, d = definition differs, u = low reliability, := not available, 09 = 2009, 12 = 2012, 13 = 2013, 17 = 2017, 18 = 2018, 19 = 2019.

Figure 2 - Position in relation to strongest and weakest performers

Source: DG Education, Youth, Sport and Culture, based on data from Eurostat (LFS 2020, UOE 2019) and OECD (PISA 2018).

2. Highlights

  • Well-being in education is receiving increased attention in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic.
  • Learning outcomes remain dependent on place of residence, with a significant urban/rural divide.
  • The tertiary attainment rate is high and growing, but the share of graduates in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) is low.
  • The gender gap continues to represent a challenge at all education levels.

3. A focus on well-being in education and training

Measures fostering well-being in education are scattered across different national policies, but efforts are underway to adopt a more coherent and systematic approach. Latvia’s National Development Plan 2021-2027 addresses well-being on a national level, and includes emotional and psychological well-being among its priorities. The plan places specific emphasis on child-parent relationships as a factor in school and work achievement. The plan sets two targets for education: (i) increasing the share of children and young people with special needs who continue their education after compulsory education (currently 28%) to 33% by 2024 and to 38% by 2027; and (ii) reducing the share of school children who report being bullied by schoolmates to 20.5% by 2027. Latvia’s Education Development Guidelines 2021-2027 include support for the growth and development of each student as a policy objective.

National criteria for school evaluation include indicators related to well-being. The State Education Quality Service (IKVD) includes ‘safety and psychological well-being’ among the national criteria for schools’ self-evaluation reports. The criteria include a requirement for schools to: (i) have clear behavioural rules; (ii) enforce these behavioural rules; and (iii) foster an inclusive physical and emotional environment. The level of pupils’ safety and psychological well-being in an educational institution is also part of IKVD’s criteria for evaluating school leaders.

Concern about widespread bullying in Latvian schools had sparked a debate on well-being in education well before the COVID-19 crisis. According to the OECD's 2018 Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), 35.5% of Latvian 15-year-olds reported being bullied at least a few times a month, the highest proportion in the EU (where the average was 22.1%). There is evidence of negative repercussions of bullying on learning achievement: reading performance in Latvia decreased by 18 score points with every one-unit increase in the index of exposure to bullying, compared to the EU average of an 11.6 score point decrease for every one-unit increase in the index (OECD 2019c). The National Guidelines for the Development of Education 2021-2027 address the need to improve the ‘insufficiently inclusive and socially emotionally safe environment in educational institutions’, notably by reducing bullying (MoES 2020). On a more positive note, the share of students who feel they don’t belong in school (25.7%) is significantly lower than the EU average of 34.8%. This indicator is positively correlated with lower truancy rates and higher expectations for further education (OECD 2019c).

Some initiatives address well-being in early childhood education. In 2018, the children’s rights NGO Dardedze Centre created a knowledge platform called Safe Childhood (Droša Bernība) for teachers and employees of pre-school educational institutions. This platform, consisting of 10 learning modules, helps pre-school staff to create and maintain a supportive and respectful environment for children’s development. Latvia also participates in the EU-funded PROMEHS (Promoting Mental Health at Schools’) project, which aims to promote mental health in schools at all levels of education, by (i) developing and implementing an evidence-based universal mental health curriculum in schools and (ii) delivering high-quality training for school staff.

During the COVID-19 crisis, the government provided targeted support for vulnerable children and families. As schools closed, the Ministry of Education and Science (MoES) conducted a survey to determine the number of children without access to a computer device or an internet connection. In partnership with two private companies, the MoES then donated over 5 000 smart devices in the first week of closures (European Commission, 2020). In collaboration with municipalities, the MoES also provided free school meals for disadvantaged children during the pandemic. Students considered at risk of dropping out received remote counselling through the Pumpurs project (funded by the European Social Fund) for tackling early school-leaving. Staff at special-education institutions provided distance learning, conducted telephone consultations with parents and, where necessary, supported children at home. There is no comprehensive data yet on the impact of the pandemic on vulnerable children, nor on the adequacy of the support provided.

The government acted to ensure pupils’ emotional well-being during school closures. The State Inspectorate for Children’s Rights hosted a telephone hotline and online chatbot providing psychological support to children. The MoES collated various websites, tools and services promoting children’s well-being. In March, the MoES announced the launch of a specific programme for young people to mitigate the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. The programme has a budget of EUR 500 000 and was developed in collaboration with the National Youth Council (LJP). During the pandemic the MoES carried out regular surveys on the implementation of distance learning and issued recommendations based on their findings. School leaders were encouraged to seek regular feedback from pupils on their mental and emotional well-being, and to provide individual support where necessary. There is no sufficient evidence yet to measure the emotional toll of school closures on students, but media reports noted a higher incidence of teenagers turning to psychological support services for help. This suggests that stress has risen and teenagers are facing challenges to their well-being.

Teacher training programmes are starting to take stress management and emotional well-being into account. Before COVID-19, 22.7% of Latvian teachers reported experiencing stress ‘a lot’, well above the EU average of 16% (European Commission/EACEA/Eurydice 2021). There are no data on the impact of the pandemic on teachers’ well-being, but the National Education Centre is planning to launch a continuing professional development module for teachers on how to address the risk of burnout and develop emotional resilience. However, there is no comprehensive approach to these issues in teacher training, whether in initial teacher education and training or in continuous professional development.

4. Investing in education and training

Latvia invests heavily in education, but maintaining a large and inefficient school network weighs heavily on resource allocation.Government expenditure on education remained well above the EU average in 2019, both as a share of GDP (5.8% against an EU average of 4.7%) and as a proportion of total government expenditure (15% against an EU average of 10%)1. The largest share of the education budget goes to primary and pre-primary education (39% against an EU average of 33%), while investment in secondary education is well below the EU average (23% against an EU average of 39%). The share of government expenditure devoted to tertiary education is in line with the EU average (16%). A comparatively high share of Latvia’s education budget was spent on intermediate consumption (20%) and on gross capital formation (15%), well above the EU averages of 14% and 7% respectively, while teacher salaries only accounted for 59% of education expenditure, compared to an average of 64% in the EU. Expenditure per student expressed in purchasing-power standards is comparatively high relative to Latvia’s GDP per capita but remains below the EU average at all levels of education, reflecting teachers’ low salaries. Latvia’s National Recovery and Resilience Plan (NRRP) envisages investments in digital skills, school infrastructure, and higher education reform (Box 1).

Box 1: The National Recovery and Resilience Plan

Latvia’s NRRP addresses the country’s key challenges through a set of reforms and investments in a broad range of policy areas. The plan is worth EUR 1.826 billion in non-repayable support from the EU’s Recovery and Resilience Facility (RRF).

Reforms and investments related to education and training are planned under 3 of the NRRP’s 6 components:

  • ‘Reduction of inequalities’: investments in school infrastructure and equipment;
  • ‘Digital transformation’: measures for closing the digital divide for vulnerable students, increasing adult learning, and strengthening digital skills;
  • ‘Economic transformation and productivity reform’: higher education reform and consolidation grants to help streamline higher education institutions (HEIs).

Latvia’s NRRP has the potential to increase GDP by 2% by 2026.

5. Modernising early childhood and school education

Participation in early childhood education and care (ECEC) is almost universal for children aged between 3 and the start of compulsory education, but enrolment of younger children is lower.94.1% of 3-6 year-olds were enrolled in ECEC in 2019, slightly more than the EU average of 93.1%, and not far below the new EU-Level target of 96% by 2030. The share of children under 3 enrolled in childcare services almost doubled between 2009 (15%) and 2019 (28.3%). However, it remains below both the EU average of 35.3% and the Barcelona target of 33%, even though Latvia’s Education law stipulates that all children are legally entitled to a place in ECEC from the age of 18 months.2

The government’s Guidelines on the Development of Education include some objectives and measures related to ECEC. The guidelines provide for: (i) introducing early diagnostics for learners who enter pre-school education at the age of 5; and (ii) strengthening educational institutions in cooperation with parents to support learning and create an emotionally safe and positive environment. The only quantitative target related to ECEC in the Guidelines is the proportion of children aged between 1 and 4 enrolled in ECEC, which the government plans to raise from 68% in 2018/2019 to 70% in 2024 and to 73% in 2027 (MoES).

The proportion of early leavers from education and training continues to fall steadily, but the gender and rural/urban gaps remain significant. The proportion of early leavers from education and training (ELET) fell to 7.2% in 2020, down 1.5 pps from 2019, and well below the new EU-level target of 9% by 2030. In the same period, the EU average fell only slightly, from 10.2% to 9.9%. Men are twice as likely as women to be early school leavers (9.5% against 4.7%), as are people in rural areas (9.9% against 5.5% in cities).

Ensuring education of equal quality across schools and regions is a challenge.Overall, Latvian students score above the EU average in basic skills achievement (PISA), but access to quality education remains dependent on students’ place of residence. Students in larger urban schools have higher average educational outcomes than those in smaller rural schools. Urban students in Latvia outperformed their rural peers by 52 points in reading in PISA 2018, the equivalent of more than 1.5 years of schooling. In addition, rural schools tend to have a higher proportion of lower socio-economic status (SES) students (Fig. 3), a lower share of resilient students (those with disadvantaged backgrounds but high academic performance); and a higher rate of grade repetition3. These challenges persist into adulthood, as adults in rural areas are twice as likely not to hold an upper secondary qualification and less likely to participate in adult learning (see Section 8). The causes of these inequalities are complex, ranging from structural challenges such as demographic change and socio-economic distribution, to educational challenges such as school size, teacher salaries, and quality of teachers (Krasnopjorovs, 2019). While it is too early to evaluate the impact of the pandemic on regional disparities, it is likely that distance learning has exacerbated existing inequalities.

Figure 3 - Rural-city gap in students’ socio-economic status, PISA 2018

Source: OECD (2021), adapted from Figure 3.9. Note: The socio-economic status is measured by the PISA Index of Economic, Social and Cultural Status. S.E = Standard error.

Latvia has started to reform its large school network, but progress is slow4, delaying gains in quality and efficiency. Latvia plans to use RRF funding to improve the quality of education and reduce the gap between urban and rural secondary schools by boosting the streamlining of the school network. EUR 31 million will be invested in renovating and equipping 20 secondary schools with a balanced territorial coverage. The plan’s success will depend to a large extent on the timely adoption of plans by the municipalities for streamlining their secondary school networks (planned for March 2022). The implementation of the competence-based curriculum proceeded according to plan in 2020 with its introduction in grades 1, 4, 7 and 10 of primary and secondary schools.

Latvia is taking steps to close the digital divide for socially vulnerable pupils and schools. The government plans to invest EUR 15 million from the RRF to set up and equip computer libraries in upper secondary schools, enabling pupils and teachers who need computers for learning or teaching to borrow one for the duration of their studies. This measure supports the new regulatory framework on the organisation and implementation of remote learning, which will be adopted by the end of 2021.

The gradual switch to Latvian as the sole language of instruction is scheduled to enter its final stage. All upper secondary schools will teach only in Latvian from the 2021/2022 school year. In primary school (grades 1-6), three models of bilingual education are being implemented, allowing some classes to be taught in a minority mother tongue (European Commission 2018). Final preparations for the transition are ongoing.

Box 2: ESF support for developing learners’ individual competences

The project aims to ensure diversity of education services in Latvia based on developing and implementing individual learning approaches in general education institutions. As a result of the project, at least 272 general education institutions will have developed and implemented individual approaches to promote learning achievements that meet the needs of learners across Latvia. This project will introduce new forms of learning approaches (individualised classes, activity cycles, study visits, etc.), and provide an alternative set of non-formal education activities (thematic camps, competitions, innovative interest-education programmes, etc.). It will also contribute to the professional development of teachers.

  • Number of beneficiaries: National Education Content Centre and 117 partners (i.e. municipalities).
  • Budget: EUR 34 145 389 (EUR 29 023 581 from the ESF).
  • Years of intervention: 01.01.2017 - 31.12.2022.
  • Results so far: 154 general education institutions that have introduced an individual approach to the development of learners’ competences.


6. Modernising vocational education and training and adult learning

Latvia’s vocational education and training system is being modernised, but ensuring a balanced distribution of students between vocational and general education remains a challenge. Only 38.9% of students choose VET, compared to the EU average of 48.4% (2019). Although the employment rate of VET graduates has improved from 65.6% in 2019 to 70.2% in 2020 (as compared to 76.1% in the EU), overall numbers of VET students and graduates continue to fall, reflecting changes in the demographic structure in the last 10 years. In 2020, there were 34.3% fewer young people aged 15-19 than in 20105.

There are major gaps in the VET system, despite significant investments over the last 10 years, including from EU funds. In a major 2020 evaluation of the vocational education system, Latvia’s State Audit Office (SAO) concluded that significant challenges remain. According to the SAO, the underlying reasons for the lack of improvement in VET are: (i) mismatches between labour-market demand and the VET offering by professional schools; and (ii) students’ reliance on personal preferences when selecting a training course instead of labour-market needs. Fragmentation of the system (including in management, qualification standards, and tracking of graduates) is further hampering progress in this area, despite advances in modernising buildings and equipment infrastructure.

Several measures are being implemented to tackle these challenges. The graduate tracking system is being updated in line with OECD recommendations (OECD 2019a). Following the revision of the national quality assurance system in 2019, procedures for accrediting VET providers and programmes have been updated, and a new concept for VET financing was developed in 2020 (Cedefop and ReferNet, 2021). Latvia is also continuing to improve links between professional education and adult learning, notably by implementing work-based VET for employees of enterprises. As part of its Resilience and Recovery Plan, Latvia is piloting the ‘skills funds’ approach in adult learning, as well as individual learning accounts.

Adoption and implementation of the overarching reform is progressing slowly. Amendments to the VET legislation are yet to be approved by the Latvian Parliament. The reform will introduce to VET the latest best practice and improve flexibility of the VET system as part of a wider approach to adult learning and skills development. The key sectoral policy document - the 2021-2027 Future skills for the future society guidelines - was approved by the government in June 2021.

Participation in adult learning remains low. Only 6.6% of adults participated in adult learning in 2020 – a drop from 7.4% in 2019 and well below the EU average of 9.2%. This could be a consequence of the COVID-19 crisis and the decline is in line with the trend across the EU6. Latvia’s main challenge remains attracting low-skilled adults to learning. Despite the significant unemployment rate of low-skilled adults, only 3.4% of participants in adult learning were low-skilled in 2019. A recent study7shows that most learning activities don’t target the low-skilled specifically, and so don’t reach them due to their lower overall motivation to take part in adult learning. To tackle this, a “Guide for municipalities on adult education governance is being prepared, and more targeted education programmes for different target groups will be developed in 20218.

In the last year, Latvia has focused on tackling the impact of COVID-19, including in adult learning. Latvia has improved the distance learning and digital skills offer for adults9 As part of its Resilience and Recovery Plan, Latvia is piloting the “skills funds” approach in adult learning, as well as Individual Learning Accounts. The strategy for mitigating the consequences of the COVID-19 crisis aims to involve 165 000 people in adult education by 2023. The plan aims to reduce the share of low-skilled people in the workforce by improving the overall skills base (including in digital skills) of the population, while targeting investments in sectors with high export potential. Latvia is also strengthening links between work-based learning and professional education. Support is being provided to businesses who offer additional training for staff, and online courses for the unemployed are partially reimbursed. In addition, the upcoming VET reform (pending Parliament approval) will introduce more flexibility in acquiring and improving professional qualification. The Education Development Guidelines 2021-2027 aim to: (i) improve links between higher and professional education; (ii) introduce skills funds and individual learning accounts; and (iii) strengthen both work-based learning, and the recognition of qualifications and skills. Adult learning also forms a significant part of Latvia’s NRRP (digital skills, reskilling/upskilling within ALMPs).

7. Modernising higher education

A high proportion of young adults have a tertiary qualification, but the gender gap remains significant. In 2020, 44.2% of Latvian 25-34 year-olds had a tertiary qualification, well above the EU average of 40.5%, putting Latvia on track to reach the new EU-level target of 45% by 2030. Over half of Latvian women (55.3%) have a tertiary degree, while only a third of men do (33.8%). At 21.5 pps, the gender gap in tertiary-degree attainment is one of the widest in the EU, and almost twice the EU average of 10.8 pps (Figure 4).

Figure 4 - Tertiary educational attainment (25-34) by gender, 2020

Source: Labour Force Survey, edat_lfse_03

The share of STEM graduates is comparatively low in Latvia.In 2019, 19.9% of all graduates had a STEM qualification, 1.4 pps fewer than in 2014 and well below the EU average of 26%. The share was particularly low for women at 9.5% (also down by 1.5 pps since 2014) compared to an EU average of 14.7%. STEM graduates tend to be concentrated in engineering, manufacturing and construction (12.5% of all graduates). ICT graduates represented 4.4% of all graduates.

Latvian HEIs were closed between March and May 2020 and again in November and December 2020, with the exception of practical activities required for final-year students to complete professional studies. The return to in-person instruction depended on COVID-19 transmission levels and on HEIs fully complying with government safety requirements (International School of Riga, 2020). Higher levels of COVID-19 transmission and/or moderate or low compliance by institutions with safety regulations typically led to a recommendation for the HEI to introduce hybrid learning and potentially close campuses. Remedial measures to address learning gaps were provided outside regular class hours to all students who needed them10. However, there is not yet any comprehensive data which would make it possible to analyse the impact of the pandemic on equity and quality in higher education.

The employment rate of recent tertiary graduates fell sharply in 2020. In 2020, 85.2% of recent tertiary graduates aged between 20 and 34 had a job, compared with 96.6% the year before. During the same period, the EU average declined only slightly from 85% to 83.7%11.

Latvia is implementing a comprehensive reform of higher education which is expected to boost quality and efficiency and increase international competitiveness, with support from the RRF. The reform envisages complex structural changes across three pillars:

  • governance (separating academic and strategic decision-making, involving external members);
  • funding (increasing the performance-based component of funding – from the current 6-7% to at least 20%, and introducing financial incentives for HEIs to consolidate);
  • human resources (developing a new and unified career model for academic and scientific staff in line with best global practice, and seeking to attract and retain international staff, especially from the Latvian diaspora).
If successful in achieving its goals, the reform could have a positive, long-lasting impact on the quality of higher education and research in Latvia. In June, the Law on Higher Education Institutions was amended to introduce different types of HEIs12 and institute governing boards in all public universities. These amendments entered into force in August 2021. The reform is backed by EUR 82.5 million RRF funding for research, development and consolidation grants. Priority in allocating these grants will be given to HEIs and scientific institutes showing a higher degree of readiness to change their governance model, including changes in the election of the HEI Council and the Rector. The government expects at least 10 national HEIs and scientific institutes to consolidate internally or externally by 2026.

A reform of the PhD system is underway.On 16 June 2020, the government approved the conceptual report On the Introduction of a New Doctoral Model in Latvia, which aims to improve the quality of doctoral studies and make them more attractive13. It is planned to introduce a new financing procedure ensuring that doctoral candidates are competitively remunerated during their studies, and to set up uniform procedures for promotion.

Latvia is preparing to introduce a cyclical institutional accreditation system in higher education with support from EU funds. In August 2020, an Erasmus+ project14 was launched to prepare a framework for the implementation of regular, comprehensive evaluation of the quality of university work. The introduction of cyclical accreditation (to be implemented gradually starting in 2024) will ensure regular, comprehensive evaluation of the quality of higher education, and will serve as a basis for gradually redirecting funding to study programmes that have been assessed as ‘excellent’ and ‘good’ in the new accreditation cycle. Currently, there is little overall available research funding, and the amount of performance-based funding for HEIs remains limited. This could hamper the reforms’ capacity to produce rapid systemic changes and to attract highly qualified academic staff.

8. References

Council of the European Union (2019), Council Recommendation on the 2019 National Reform Programme of Latvia and delivering a Council opinion on the 2018 Stability Programme of Latvia.

European Commission (2018), Education and Training Monitor 2020 Latvia.

European Commission/EACEA/Eurydice (2021), Teachers in Europe: Careers, Development and Well-being. Eurydice report. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.

Krasnopjorovs, O. (2019). Why is education performance so different across Latvian schools? Economics of Transition and Institutional Change, Vol. 17, Issue 4

MoES (2020). Izglītības attīstības pamatnostādnes 2021.-2027.gadam “Nākotnes prasmes nākotnes sabiedrībai”

OECD (2019a), OECD Skills Strategy Latvia: Assessment and Recommendations, OECD Skills Studies, OECD Publishing, Paris,

OECD (2019b), PISA 2018 Results (Volume I): What Students Know and Can Do, PISA, OECD Publishing, Paris,

OECD (2019c), PISA 2018 Results (Volume III): What School Life Means for Students’ Lives, PISA, OECD Publishing, Paris,

Annex I: Key indicators sources

Indicator Eurostat online data code
Participation in early childhood education educ_uoe_enra21
Low achieving eighth-graders in digital skills IEA, ICILS.
Low achieving 15-year-olds in reading, maths and science OECD (PISA)
Early leavers from education and training Main data: edat_lfse_14.
Data by country of birth: edat_lfse_02.
Exposure of VET graduates to work based learning Data for the EU-level target is not available. Data collection starts in 2021. Source: EU LFS.
Tertiary educational attainment Main data: edat_lfse_03.
Data by country of birth: edat_lfse_9912.
Participation of adults in learning Data for the EU-level target is not available. Data collection starts in 2021. Source: EU LFS.
Public expenditure on education as a percentage of GDP gov_10a_exp
Expenditure on public and private institutions per student educ_uoe_fini04
Upper secondary level attainment edat_lfse_03

Annex II: Structure of the education system

Source: European Commission/EACEA/Eurydice, 2021. The Structure of the European Education Systems 2021/2022: Schematic Diagrams. Eurydice Facts and Figures. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.

Any comments and questions on this report can be sent to:


1General government expenditure by function (COFOG) [gov_10a_exp].


3Rural students are more than three times more likely to repeat a year than their urban peers

4Between the school years 2019/2020 and 2021/2022 the number of primary, lower secondary and upper secondary schools went from 45 to 40, from 243 to 242 and from 260 to 229 respectively. The MoES estimates that 40% of upper secondary schools are not in line with the Ministry’s quantitative criteria.

5Source: Central Statistics Bureau of Latvia.

6Adult learning report, 2021.


8LV EMCO fiche, 17.3.2021.

9National Reform Programme 2021, p.18.

10OECD/UNESCO-UIS/UNICEF/World Bank Special Survey on COVID. March 2021.

11Eurostat [edat_lfse_24]

12The new law divides HEIs into: (i) science universities; (ii) arts and cultural universities; (iii) applied science universities; and (iv) applied sciences university colleges. Each type of HEI will need to meet a specific set of criteria.

13Latvia has a comparatively low proportion of students enrolled in PhD programmes (3% in 2019 against an EU average of 4%). Eurostat.