European Education Area Progress Report 2021

Education and Training Monitor 2021


1. Key indicators

Figure 1 – Key indicators overview
Greece EU-27
2010 2020 2010 2020
EU-level targets 2030 target
Participation in early childhood education
(from age 3 to starting age of compulsory primary education)
≥ 96% 85.3%13,d 68.8%19 91.8%13 92.8%19
Low achieving eighth-graders in digital skills < 15% : : : :
Low achieving 15-year-olds in: Reading < 15% 21.3%09,b 30.5%18 19.7%09,b 22.5%18
Maths < 15% 30.4%09 35.8%18 22.7%09 22.9%18
Science < 15% 25.3%09 31.7%18 17.8%09 22.3%18
Early leavers from education and training (age 18-24) < 9% 13.5% 3.8% 13.8% 9.9%
Exposure of VET graduates to work based learning ≥ 60% : : : :
Tertiary educational attainment (age 25-34) ≥ 45% (2025) 30.6% 43.7% 32.2% 40.5%
Participation of adults in learning (age 25-64) ≥ 47% (2025) : : : :
Other contextual indicators
Education investment Public expedienture on education as a percentage of GDP 4.1% 4.0%19 5.0% 4.7%19
Expenditure on public and private institutions per FTE/student in € PPS ISCED 1-2 €4 20412 €4 86718 €6 07212,d €6 35917,d
ISCED 3-4 : : €7 36613,d €7 76217,d
ISCED 5-8 €2 64012 €2 42018 €9 67912,d €9 99517,d
Early leavers from education and training (age 18-24) Native 9.2% 2.9% 12.4% 8.7%
EU-born 27.4% :u 26.9% 19.8%
Non EU-born 46.1% 28.0% 32.4% 23.2%
Upper secondary level attainment (age 20-24, ISCED 3-8) 83.6% 94.9% 79.1% 84.3%
Tertiary educational attainment (age 25-34) Native 34.1% 46.2% 33.4% 41.3%
EU-born 14.5% 25.1%u 29.3% 40.4%
Non EU-born 9.2% 14.8% 23.1% 34.4%

Sources: Eurostat (UOE, LFS, COFOG); OECD (PISA). Further information can be found in Annex I and in Volume 1 ( Notes: The 2018 EU average on PISA reading performance does not include ES; the indicator used (ECE) refers to early-childhood education and care programmes which are considered by the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) to be ‘educational’ and therefore constitute the first level of education in education and training systems – ISCED level 0; FTE = full-time equivalent; b = break in time series, d = definition differs, u = low reliability, := not available, 09 = 2009, 12 = 2012, 13 = 2013, 17 = 2017, 18 = 2018, 19 = 2019.

Figure 2 - Position in relation to strongest and weakest performers

Source: DG Education, Youth, Sport and Culture, based on data from Eurostat (LFS 2020, UOE 2019) and OECD (PISA 2018).

2. Highlights

  • Spending on education is low, but the EU Recovery and Resilience Facility (RRF) provides for significant investments and reforms in the Greek education, training and skills system, including in digital infrastructure and skills.
  • Greece is making considerable efforts to modernise all levels of education. Swift and effective reforms are key for improving educational outcomes.
  • Greece needs to adopt comprehensive policies to ensure the well-being of pupils and teachers, who have been deeply affected by the pandemic.
  • A substantial reform was introduced in 2020, aiming at improving the attractiveness and labour market relevance of vocational education and training, which remains a key issue in Greece.

3. A focus on well-being in education and training

Greece needs to take a comprehensive approach to improve well-being at school, but essential actions are already included in the school curriculum. There is so far no national strategy for well-being in education and no definition of well-being at school per se. However, the Greek Ministry of Education and Religious Affairs (Ministry of Education) places great emphasis on actions which promote ‘quality of school life’ and ‘personal development’ in schools. An innovative action called ‘Skills Labs1’ was introduced in 2020 to support children in their skills development. It covers pre-primary, primary and lower secondary education, and promotes non-violent behaviour, mental and emotional health, mutual respect in diversity and preventing bullying and cyberbullying. Health education is also included in the primary curriculum. In Greece, 185 000 students in 1 230 schools benefit from hot meals – a scheme that helps strengthen solidarity and companionship in the school community. Since 2012, 16 million breakfasts were provided to 110 000 students in 688 primary and secondary schools in low socio-economic areas. The Greek #MeToo movement that was ignited this year mobilised schools' psychologists and social workers already present in schools to tackle this pressing issue. In higher education, individual counselling is provided to students and graduates to help them adapt to the new academic environment as well as cope with stress, decision-making difficulties, addictions, eating disorders, and other issues. However, during the lockdowns, students mainly contacted their university student-counselling primarily for difficulties related to their studies and less so for psychological support.

Many Greek students face bullying. According to the 2018 OECD Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), 27% of Greek secondary students reported being bullied at least a few times a month (EU average 22%). Students with low academic achievement are much more exposed to bullying than high achievers (39.3% vs 19.9%), and this gap (19.5%) is larger than the EU average (15.9%). The share of students who report being bullied increased considerably between 2015 and 2018 by 10.2%, the second highest increase among EU countries. The proportion of cases where the child's experience of being bullied goes unrecognised by parents is very high in Greece2 (79%). Half of the Greek students (49.6%) strongly agree that it is wrong to join in bullying. One of the anti-bullying measures introduced by the Ministry of Education is that bullying is being tackled in the classroom as part of the mandatory curriculum.

Even before the pandemic, many adolescents (14-17 year-olds) were bullied online. There are no targeted awareness-raising actions in the Greek schools on digital well-being. A school-based study among seven European countries3 revealed that even before the COVID-19 pandemic Greece had the second highest rate of adolescents being bullied online (26.8%). During the pandemic and with the increase of digital education, 64% of Greek parents were worried about the amount of time their children spend online. Many were concerned about the risk of addiction, while 14% did not know with whom their child was interacting online. While the Greek authorities have made considerable efforts to promote online safety, a large share of adolescents lack digital skills (ETM 2020) and awareness of online risks.

The Cybercrime Service of the Ministry of Civil Protection created an information platform for youngsters (6-18 year-olds). During lockdown periods, parents’ associations and school principals organised information days on internet behaviour. Research organisations provided students with information and training, and developed communication platforms. Greece has a School Violence and Bullying Prevention Observatory and has launched a Panhellenic school day against violence at school (March 6).

The prevalence of depression increased significantly in Greece during the pandemic. Studies show that 9.3% of the sampled population (which included a strong presence of young people) suffered from clinical depression during the pandemic, 8.5% from severe distress and over 45% from increased anxiety (Fountoulakis et al., 2021). The pandemic created the largest disruption of the education and training system in history and revealed the need for digital upskilling of teachers as well as for upgrading of digital infrastructures. Greece developed online tools and participation platforms to allow students to follow distance learning and provided training to teachers. During this process, the needs of disadvantaged groups were also taken into consideration in order to prevent discrimination, violence and exclusion. The Ministry of Education took action to psychologically support students from pre-school through to upper secondary level, also including secondary vocational education, teachers and parents, mobilising psychologists and social workers4. Various initiatives arose, mainly by health institutions and universities, to support children and adolescents coping with the pandemic conditions and the impact on their mental health. The actions planned by Greece for a smooth reopening of schools in September 2021 (IEP) included psychosocial support for students, reconnection paths, and mutual support of teachers.

The well-being of students in higher education was deeply affected by the pandemic. 67% of Greek students were concerned that they would not be able to successfully complete the academic year due to the pandemic, while 46.3% agreed or strongly agreed that their workload had increased significantly during the outbreak. The change in teaching methods also caused a high degree of stress to 43.3% of university students in Greece. The majority (71.2%) was satisfied with the proactive measures taken by their university, however many (45.9%) felt unable to talk to a member of the university staff about their pandemic-related concerns (Stathopoulou et al., 2020).

Box 1: EU support for training of teachers in skills through workshops

The Skills Labs is a flagship initiative of the Ministry of Education and Religious Affairs in collaboration with the Institute of Educational Policy. It aims at preparing teachers to foster the development of soft skills, life skills as well as technology and science skills among students of pre-primary, primary and lower secondary education. Through this innovative intervention, piloted in 218 schools during the school year 2020/2021 and extended to all schools throughout Greece from 2021/2022, students and teachers use knowledge gained in school in a creative way. More than 75 000 educators have either enrolled or completed the 32-hour Skills Labs training.
The Skills Labs are organised around 4 main cycles: (a) Better living – Well-being, (b) Environmental consciousness, (c) Interest and action — Social consciousness and responsibility, and (d) Creation and innovation — Creative thinking and initiative. The training material is in line with adult and distance learning methods, it includes video sessions, sources and scenarios for the application of good practices, and it is accompanied by exercises and self-assessment activities. The aim is to create a dynamic learning and practice community.

Public budget: EUR 398 550.20 - European Social Fund (ESF) contribution: EUR 311 977.12

The training platform for the skills' development through workshops is available at

4. Investing in education and training

Public spending on education remains below the EU average. General government expenditure on education in 2019 remained below the EU average, both as a proportion of GDP (4.0% vs 4.7%) and of total general government expenditure (8.3% vs 10%), the latter being the second lowest ratio among Member States after Italy. Moreover, figures do not show any considerable increase (4.0% in 2019 vs 3.9% in 2018). Following the 2019 European Semester country-specific recommendation for Greece to invest in education and skills, Greece started investing in skills development, placing it high in the national policy agenda along with a strong legislative activity in education, promoting key reforms.

Tertiary education is largely underfunded. Tertiary education receives 1.9% of total general government expenditure (vs 2.7% for pre-primary and primary education, and 2.6% for secondary education). This situation may be set to improve, partly thanks to new legislation adopted in January 20205 that introduces performance-based funding in higher education starting from the 2021/2022 academic year, related to objective criteria. The Recovery and Resilience Facility as well as the European Structural and Investment Funds will channel additional funding to support innovation and excellence in universities.

Some EUR 230 million are being spent for digital equipment for pupils and students and for interactive learning systems under the RRF. Under the RRF, more than 550 000 pupils and students aged 4-24 will be provided with a voucher worth EUR 200 to purchase the appropriate digital devices, taking into account income and social6 criteria. Moreover, some 36 000 interactive learning systems will be installed in primary and secondary schools throughout the country also financed under the RRF. Meanwhile, the Ministry of Education attempted to address shortages of computers in schools by buying more than 90 000 laptops and tablets at a value of EUR 24 million. This purchase was financed by the EU budget7 and private donations (7:3). The equipment, which belongs to the school, can be rented by both teachers and students. It will be available at all education levels, from pre-school to upper secondary, to ensure that all students can participate in distance learning.

Box 2: The National Recovery and Resilience Plan

The Greek Recovery and Resilience Plan8, named ‘Greece 2.0’, is worth a total of EUR 30.5 billion, of which EUR 17.8 billion are grants and EUR 12.7 billion are loans under the EU Recovery and Resilience Facility. It is structured around four pillars, encompassing 68 reforms and 106 investments to be implemented during the period 2021-2026. Investments related to education, training and skills represent more than 10% of the Greek plan. The RRF will support among others infrastructure development, improvement of the education system and skills, digitalisation of education, excellence in Greek universities, upgrading of vocational education and training (VET), supply for laboratory equipment for VET educational units. It will boost investments in human capital and it will contribute to the growth potential of the Greek economy.

5. Modernising early childhood and school education

Greece ranks last in the EU in participation in early childhood education and care (ECEC). 68.8% of 3-6 year-olds participated in ECE in 2020, far below the EU average of 92.8%, and the EU-level target of 96% by 2030. However, the share of children under 3 years-old, enrolled in formal childcare services almost tripled between 2009 (11%) and 2019 (32.4%) but remains below both the EU average (35.5%) and the Barcelona target (33%). It is noted that Greece, Luxemburg, Austria, Cyprus and the Netherlands have much higher participation rates for the 4+ age bracket than for the 3+ age bracket9. In Greece, ECEC is provided in two phases: childcare for children under 4 years-old and pre-primary education starting at the age of 4. Pre-primary education (ISCED 02) is part of primary education and free in public schools. Full implementation of the compulsory two-year attendance in pre-primary education will be reached during the 2021/2022 school year. Projects aiming at both raising participation in ECEC for children under 4 and developing a new curriculum are programmed to be funded by the RRF and the ESF+.

Figure 3 - Participation in early childhood education of pupils from age 3 to the starting age of compulsory primary education, 2014 and 2019 (%)

Source: UOE, educ_uoe_enra21

As of the 2021/2022 school year, all pre-primary school children will benefit from doing creative activities in the English language at school. As the pilot programme in 58 ECEC institutions during the last academic year was deemed a success by the Ministry of Education, its universal expansion has been decided. However, the evaluation of the pilot still needs to be finalised to identify challenges and lessons learnt. Specialized training on synchronous and asynchronous distance learning was carried out for the educational project coordinators and English language teachers. The particularity was that teachers of different levels and specialities, i.e. kindergarten teachers and foreign language teachers not necessarily specialised for this age group, were trained together.

A large number (123) of new curricula have been developed. These new curricula, covering pre-primary to upper secondary general education, will be piloted from September 2021. They will emphasise acquiring key competences, inclusive education, and the use of multiple sources - including digital ones. The pilot is planned to take place in model and experimental schools, both in primary and secondary education, during the 2021/2022 and 2022/2023 school years. In addition, 330 curricula for vocational education will be completed by early 2022. The aim is to modernise and digitalise textbooks, enrich digital content, introduce experience-based learning and foster inclusive education. Teachers will be trained to effectively apply the new curricula and to integrate new textbooks into their teaching practice.

The external evaluation of schools has not yet started. However, the relevant planning has been set by the Ministry of Education for the school year 2021/2022. The annual internal evaluation was carried in all types of primary and secondary schools in June 2021 and looked at schools' operation and the quality of their pedagogy. An external evaluation was planned for the first time for the previous school year. It was to be carried out at three levels: (a) by the educational coordinator per school; (b) by the educational coordinator for all schools under his/her responsibility; and (c) by the regional centres for educational planning (PEKES) for all the schools under their responsibility. However, the timing was not ideal as schools were closed because of the pandemic.

Teachers up to upper secondary level were trained to deliver distance learning. The objective was to gain knowledge, skills and practical experience to make distance learning more effective. Around 800 teachers became trainers and trained more than 82000 others. Multimedia training material was created for both synchronous and asynchronous distance teaching. The programme was co-financed under the ESF with a budget of EUR 1.5 million.

Through its Technical Support Instrument (TSI), the Commission provides Greece with expertise to promote inclusive education and rebuild its educational support structures. National legislation10 seeks to decentralise the educational system by making planning and self-reflection of schools' educational work a regional responsibility. In line with this legislation, all primary and secondary education support structures are being reorganised. The TSI helps Greece clarify the roles of support structures11, strengthen qualifications of the professionals involved in them and build collaboration among support structures and mainstream education.

A new law12 on school improvement and strengthening the competences of teachers was voted by the Greek Parliament in the summer. The law consists of three strands: (a) strengthening the autonomy of all schools; (b) establishing a mechanism to improve teachers' competences through the evaluation of their work; and (c) strengthening educational structures. The aim is to ensure an effective pedagogical support of autonomous schools.

The rate of early leavers from education and training decreased markedly during the last decade. Greece recorded a rate of early leavers of 3.8% in 2020 (EU average 9.9%), a 9.7 percentage point (pps) improvement compared to 2010, one of the highest in the EU. The proportion of men (4.4%) is moderately higher than that of women (3%). Differences between regions persist with a low rural-urban gap of 3.6 pps in 2020. In 2020 the country reported the highest proportion of early leavers in rural areas (6.6%). During the last decade, early school leaving in rural areas decreased by 13.4 pps.

Figure 4 - Early leavers from education and training, 2010 and 2020 (%)

Source: LFS, edat_lfse_14. 2020 data for HR are low reliable.

6. Modernising vocational education and training and adult learning

The law of December 202013]> substantially reformed vocational education and training (VET). The attractiveness of VET in Greece and the country's ability to respond to future demands in the labour market, need to be improved. The proportion of upper secondary students enrolled in VET is far below the EU average (29.1% vs 49% in 2019), although unemployment rates of recent non-tertiary education graduates are lower than those of tertiary education (26.8% vs 27.3% in 2020). The law attempts a holistic reform of VET and Lifelong Learning (LLL), including a new VET governance scheme based on three principles: the common planning of VET and LLL, the link of VET and LLL with the real needs of the labour market, and the upgrading of their quality. It is expected that the new framework will improve the adaptability, flexibility, quality, inclusiveness and permeability of training pathways and, thus, the attractiveness of the VET system.

Further important reforms introduced by the law, include the establishment of Model Vocational Upper-Secondary schools (model EPAL), Experimental and Thematic Vocational Training Institutes (IEKs), as well as the upgrade of the institutions of internship and apprenticeships.

The education and labour market intelligence systems need to be adapted to include skills analysis and development. As an example, young (20-29 year-olds) tertiary graduates in STEM, construction and manufacturing accounted only for 17.2% in 2019, although  strong employment growth is forecasted in related sectors of economic activity until 2030 (Skills Forecast, CEDEFOP, 2020), including the impact of investments in twin transitions. Shifting from input-based to innovative, data-driven education and training systems and integrating entrepreneurial, green, soft and transversal skills in training and education, will be crucial to improve competitiveness and stimulate economic growth for a robust post-crisis recovery. The Skills Labs are heading in the right direction.

The COVID-19 pandemic has accelerated digitalisation and increased basic digital skills across VET education levels and age groups, although the proportion of ICT graduates fell from 4.9% in 2016 to 2.9% in 2020 (DESI 2020). The supply of basic and the development of more advanced digital infrastructure in VET, including robotics and Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Virtual Reality (VR) technologies, also in remote and rural areas, is crucial to address the impact of lack of digital skills to employment prospects of Greek graduates (ET Monitor, 2020).

Raising participation in adult learning remains a key challenge in Greece. The proportion of adults aged 25-64 participating in education and training in the 4 weeks preceding the Labour Force Survey increased only slightly from 3.9% in 2019 to 4.1% in 2020, and remains far below the EU average (9.2% in 2020). Educational attainment is a significant factor for participation in learning activities, with only 0.8% of low-qualified adults (ISCED level 0-2) participating in adult learning compared to 6.4% of high-qualified adults (ISCED level 5-8). A significant part of the adult population states that they lack some technical skills (47% vs EU average 28%) or some general skills (38% vs EU average 22%) to perform their work at the required level, while 92% of the adult population believes that investing in adult learning should be a priority.

The law14 of 2020 regulates LLL Centres (KDVM). It defines the role of LLL Centres as service providers in the context of non-formal learning (reskilling, upskilling, general education, counselling and career guidance for adults). In addition, the law contains provisions concerning their establishment, licensing and certification, the framework for trainers and certified programs, the validation of learning results, as well as their supervision and control structure.

A new ‘Lifelong Skilling’ Strategy will be supported by the EU Recovery and Resilience Facility (RRF) to improve training provision. The strategy includes setting up ‘lifelong skilling accounts’ as the main tool for ongoing training; a national ‘eligible training provider’ list based on minimum quality criteria for trainers; and a National Skills Council that will be responsible for designing the national skills strategy. Greece's Recovery and Resilience Plan also includes the reform of the Account for Employment and Vocational Training (LAEK), which funds vocational training programmes for employees through compulsory employer contributions.

The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the need to better monitor adult learning. It is crucial to have reliable data on the impact of the pandemic on the participation and well-being of adult learners in non-formal general adult education or continuing vocational training and their trainers. Similarly to the formal education system, measures for the digitalisation of the learning materials in non-formal adult education is key.

7. Modernising higher education

The rate of adults aged 25-34 holding a degree from tertiary education increased considerably during the last decade by 13.1 percentage points. Currently, this rate stands at 43.7%, above the EU average (40.5%) and the national target (32%), but below the EU-level target of 45% by 2030. At 51%, women's tertiary educational attainment is 14.3 pps higher than men's. Non EU-born students are much less likely to obtain higher education degrees than native-born students (14.8% vs 46.2%). Within the country, regional differences in tertiary education attainment persist with an urban-rural gap of 20.9 pps (a 2.3 pps decrease compared to 2019). The small but steady increase in the employment rate of recent tertiary graduates observed in recent years was reversed in 2020 (60.8% in 2020 vs 64.2% in 2019), positioning Greece last in the EU. In 2020, Greece was one of the three15 EU Member States where the employment rate of recent graduates was lower than the overall employment rate, suggesting that new graduates faced particular challenges to enter the labour market, including mismatches between education outcomes and labour market needs.

A minimum threshold was set for this year's university entry exams. The law on higher education of February 2021 reformed the selection and entry system by setting a minimum mark for the university admissions exams from the 2021/2022 academic year. It also set a time limit for completing university degrees in order to limit the number of ‘eternal’, i.e. only nominal students16, and introduced a new option for tertiary VET.

Greek universities are becoming more international. The law of June 2020 opened the door to English-taught Bachelor's programmes (ETM 2019). The first English-speaking undergraduate medicine programme at the National Kapodistrian University of Athens17, scheduled to operate in the 2022/2023 academic year, has been approved by the Hellenic Authority for Higher Education. The Aristotle University of Thessaloniki also developed an undergraduate medicine programme in English. The law allows joint or dual degrees with foreign or co-national universities. An ambitious financing plan18 was developed by the Ministry of Education to support universities' internationalisation, which includes ESF funding. Seven Greek higher education institutes (HEIs) have joined forces with foreign HEIs under the European University Initiative which aims to strengthen their internationalisation. The internationalisation of Greek HEIs will also be enhanced through RRF funding.

Greece acknowledges the key role HEIs play in contributing to sustainable development. Academic programmes on sustainable development are organised by different Greek universities. A network of HEIs for sustainable development aims to promote effective policy making at local, regional and national level, following the 2030 United Nations' Agenda for Sustainable Development and the initiatives to integrate the Sustainable Development Goals into the higher education sector.

COVID-19 impacted strongly on HEIs in Greece. They remained closed from March 2020 until the end of the 2020/2021 academic year and they were forced, based on the preventive measures, to change their teaching methods by moving to an online learning environment. Only performing on site laboratory and clinical exercises were allowed on the premises, while the semester exams took place remotely at most of the institutions.

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Ελληνική Δημοκρατία, Υπουργείο Παιδείας και Θρησκευμάτων, Ειδήσεις – 28-05-21 Άνοιξε η πλατφόρμα υποβολής για αιτήσεις για τα Πρότυπα και Πειραματικά Σχολεία.

Ελληνική Δημοκρατία, Υπουργείο Παιδείας και Θρησκευμάτων, Υπουργικές Αποφάσεις, Εγκύκλιοι – Ανακοινώσεις – 12-02-21 Διευκρινιστικές οδηγίες για την υποστήριξη μαθητών/τριών, γονέων και εκπαιδευτικών από το Ειδικό Εκπαιδευτικό Προσωπικό (Ε.Ε.Π.) των κλάδων ΠΕ23 Ψυχολόγων και ΠΕ30 Κοινωνικών Λειτουργών για το σχολικό έτος 2020-2021 στο πλαίσιο της Πράξης: «Υποστήριξη σχολικών Μονάδων Πρωτοβάθμιας και Δευτεροβάθμιας Γενικής Εκπαίδευσης από Ψυχολόγους και Κοινωνικούς Λειτουργούς για την αντιμετώπιση των συνεπειών του Covid-19».

Ελληνική Δημοκρατία, Υπουργείο Παιδείας και Θρησκευμάτων – 14-04-21 Οι μεταρρυθμίσεις στην εκπαίδευση στο επίκεντρο διαδικτυακής συνάντησης εργασίας της ΥΠΑΙΘ Νίκης Κεραμέως, της Υφυπ. Ζέττας Μακρή και του Γεν. Γραμματέα, Αλέξ. Κόπτση, με τον Πρόεδρο κύριο Γιάννη Αντωνίου & τα Μέλη του Διοικητικού Συμβουλίου του Ινστιτούτου Εκπαιδευτικής Πολιτικής.

Ελληνική Δημοκρατία, Υπουργείο Παιδείας και Θρησκευμάτων – 30-06-21 17 Ερωτήσεις και απαντήσεις για το νέο νομοσχέδιο του Υπουργείου Παιδείας και Θρησκευμάτων «ΑΝΑΒΑΘΜΙΣΗ ΤΟΥ ΣΧΟΛΕΙΟΥ ΚΑΙ ΕΝΔΥΝΑΜΩΣΗ ΤΩΝ ΕΚΠΑΙΔΕΥΤΙΚΩΝ».

Ελληνική Δημοκρατία, Υπουργείο Παιδείας και Θρησκευμάτων, Ινστιτούτο Εκπαιδευτικής Πολιτικής, ΙΕΠ (2021), Αγγλικά στο Νηπιαγωγείο.

Ελληνική Δημοκρατία, Υπουργείο Παιδείας και Θρησκευμάτων, Ινστιτούτο Εκπαιδευτικής Πολιτικής, ΙΕΠ (2021), Εργαστήρια Δεξιοτήτων 21+.

Κέντρο Ανάπτυξης Εκπαιδευτικής Πολιτικής ΓΣΕΕ (2021), Εκδόσεις.

Annex I: Key indicators sources

Indicator Eurostat online data code
Early leavers from education and training educ_uoe_enra21
Low achieving eighth-graders in digital skills IEA, ICILS.
Low achieving 15-year-olds in reading, maths and science OECD (PISA)
Early leavers from education and training Main data: edat_lfse_14.
Data by country of birth:edat_lfse_02.
Exposure of VET graduates to work based learning Data for the EU-level target is not available. Data collection starts in 2021. Source: EU LFS.
Tertiary educational attainment Main data: edat_lfse_03.
Data by country of birth: edat_lfse_9912.
Participation of adults in learning Data for the EU-level target is not available. Data collection starts in 2022. Source: EU LFS.
Public expenditure on education as a percentage of GDP gov_10a_exp
Expenditure on public and private institutions per student educ_uoe_fini04
Upper secondary level attainment edat_lfse_03

Annex II: Structure of the education system

Source: European Commission/EACEA/Eurydice, 2021. The Structure of the European Education Systems 2021/2022: Schematic Diagrams. Eurydice Facts and Figures. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.

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1 The Skills Labs were awarded in 2021 for quality and good practice in Global Education across Europe, by GENES Global Education award.

2 Online survey of 9-16 year-olds and their parents in 25 countries.

3 Germany, Greece, Iceland, the Netherlands, Poland, Romania and Spain.

4 Mainly the introduction of the « Counsellor of School Life » and the recruitment of 2 800 psychologists and social workers.

5 Law 4653/2020.

6 Children with migrant background, refugees and Roma are included in the programme.

7 By the European Regional Development Fund.


9 Education and Training Monitor 2021 (Vol.I)

10 Law 4547/2018.

11 Regional Centres for Educational Planning (PEKES) and Educational and Counselling Centres (KESY).

12 Law 4823/2021.

13 Law 4763/2020.

14 Law 4763/2020.

15 Greece, Italy and Lithuania.

16 Greece has the highest enrolment rates in the 30-39 age bracket in the EU (Eurostat 2018 data).

17 Bachelor's in the Archaeology, History and Literature of Ancient Greece.

18 ’Support of actions for internationalisation of the higher education’.