European Education Area Progress Report 2021

Education and Training Monitor 2021


1. Key indicators

Figure 1 – Key indicators overview
Czechia EU-27
2010 2020 2010 2020
EU-level targets 2030 target
Participation in early childhood education
(from age 3 to starting age of compulsory primary education)
≥ 96% 76.8%13 86.3%19 91.8%13 92.8%19
Low achieving eighth-graders in digital skills < 15% 15.0%13 : : :
Low achieving 15-year-olds in: Reading < 15% 23.1%09,b 20.7%18 19.7%09,b 22.5%18
Maths < 15% 22.4%09 20.4%18 22.7%09 22.9%18
Science < 15% 17.3%09 18.8%18 17.8%09 22.3%18
Early leavers from education and training (age 18-24) < 9% 4.9% 7.6% 13.8% 9.9%
Exposure of VET graduates to work based learning ≥ 60% : : : :
Tertiary educational attainment (age 25-34) ≥ 45% (2025) 22.6% 33.0% 32.2% 40.5%
Participation of adults in learning (age 25-64) ≥ 47% (2025) : : : :
Other contextual indicators
Education investment Public expedienture on education as a percentage of GDP 4.6% 4.9%19 5.0% 4.7%19
Expenditure on public and private institutions per FTE/student in € PPS ISCED 1-2 €4 62912 €5 88918 €6 07212,d €6 35917,d
ISCED 3-4 €5 19112 €7 54518 €7 36613,d €7 76217,d
ISCED 5-8 €7 72612 €11 15618 €9 67912,d €9 99517,d
Early leavers from education and training (age 18-24) Native 4.7% 7.4% 12.4% 8.7%
EU-born 13.6%u 19.0%u 26.9% 19.8%
Non EU-born 12.8%u 8.0%u 32.4% 23.2%
Upper secondary level attainment (age 20-24, ISCED 3-8) 91.9% 87.4% 79.1% 84.3%
Tertiary educational attainment (age 25-34) Native 22.5% 32.3% 33.4% 41.3%
EU-born 32.3% 50.8% 29.3% 40.4%
Non EU-born 20.0% 41.3% 23.1% 34.4%

Sources: Eurostat (UOE, LFS, COFOG); OECD (PISA). Further information can be found in Annex I and in Volume 1 ( Notes: The 2018 EU average on PISA reading performance does not include ES; the indicator used (ECE) refers to early-childhood education and care programmes which are considered by the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) to be ‘educational’ and therefore constitute the first level of education in education and training systems – ISCED level 0; FTE = full-time equivalent; b = break in time series, d = definition differs, u = low reliability, := not available, 09 = 2009, 12 = 2012, 13 = 2013, 17 = 2017, 18 = 2018, 19 = 2019

Figure 2 - Position in relation to strongest and weakest performers

Source: DG Education, Youth, Sport and Culture, based on data from Eurostat (LFS 2020, UOE 2019) and OECD (PISA 2018).

2. Highlights

  • Well-being in education receives more attention in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic and brings inequality into the spotlight.
  • Czechia put forward a long-term vision for developing its education system. Reducing major inequalities is a priority.
  • Early childhood education and care remains inadequate for children under 3 years old. The government’s plan to build more childcare facilities should improve matters.
  • Early school leaving is on the rise.

3. A focus on well-being in education and training

Pupils’ well-being, performance and socio-economic status are linked. Czech pupils’ sense of belonging in school is one of the lowest in the EU, with a significant gap between advantaged and disadvantaged pupils (PISA 2018 index of belonging of -0.28 v +0.1 on EU average, see Figure 3). More than half of pupils – the highest value in the EU – reported feeling sometimes or always scared, compared to a third on average in the EU (OECD, 2019). Bullying is higher than the EU average. One in three pupils reported being bullied at least a few times a month (22% in the EU). Bullying is more widespread at disadvantaged schools (more than 13 pps difference between advantaged and disadvantaged schools v 10 pps in the EU). Overall, pupils with high well-being tend to cluster in certain schools. Czechia is among the countries with the largest inter-school differences in pupils’ well-being (OECD, 2021)1. A lower sense of belonging and exposure to bullying are linked to lower educational aspirations and outcomes (OECD, 2019). The strong relationship between socio-economic status and educational outcomes in Czechia also extends to pupils’ well-being, therefore increasing inequality.

Figure 3 – Index of sense of belonging at school by student characteristics, PISA 2018

Source: OECD, PISA 2018. *NL: Data did not meet the PISA technical standards but was accepted as largely comparable.

Well-being was not an explicit policy focus in the past, but receives increasing attention. Official policy documents do not define well-being. It is seen as a condition for good learning, rather than an objective in itself. Recently, the Czech School Inspectorate dedicated two publications to the issue (CSI, 2021b,c). It found that the well-being of teachers is strongly linked to confidence in teaching and the motivation and performance of pupils. However, only 16% of Czech teachers felt their profession was valued by society compared to an OECD average of 31% (TALIS 2018). The new education strategy 2030+ proposes some measures to improve the well-being of teachers and pupils. It set outs plans to support teachers with:

  • professional development;
  • burnout prevention;
  • conflict and stress management;
  • mental health; and
  • psychological issues.

It also proposes to involve pupils in the decision-making of the school (pupils’ parliaments), raise awareness of mental health (also for VET students) and strengthen school counselling services and parents’ participation in the functioning of the school. Digital well-being such as being able to react to cyber-bullying or discern false information is addressed under digital skills (MŠMT, 2020a).

The shift towards distance learning has had an impact on the well-being of learners. According to a national survey, 77% of parents thought that their children were less motivated than during classroom schooling. More than a third of pupils (36%) said that they did not manage to learn the subject matter during distance learning. This figure rose to 45% among pupils with lower socio-economic status. Parents’ aspirations for their children's education were lower than before the pandemic (in April 2020, only 31% of parents expected their child to complete higher education, compared to 37% in December 2019; PAQ, 2021). Following the spring 2020 school closures, around 10 000 pupils did not have access to distance learning at all (CSI, 2021a). Higher education students, too, felt the pandemic’s impact on their mental health. Almost half indicated that the change in teaching methods caused them major stress and a third were worried about not completing their academic year successfully. In addition, the number of students who feared not to make ends meet tripled (Van de Velde, 2021).

Public and private actors aim to offset the negative effects of distance learning. The Ministry of Education proposed measures, together with the National Institute of Mental Health, to support mental health in schools when pupils return to school. It includes making mental health information available to children and educators, organising a mental health day for pedagogical staff and promoting social and emotional skills to increase resilience and stress management. During distance learning, schools also took steps to support pupils’ well-being. They organised regular informal online meetings, including on mental health, support for cooperation among peers, outdoor activities, psychological support and project work on resilience (Partnerství, 2021c). If schools reached out to disadvantaged pupils struggling with distance learning, they were often successful (CSI, 2021a). The NGO Partnership for Education 2030+ published recommendations for educators to support students’ return to school after prolonged closures. These included re-establishing social relationships, giving pupils time to re-adapt and supporting self-regulation (Partnerství, 2021b). The EU-funded initiative Minimalizace šikany2 has broadened its activities to cover cyber-bullying. It runs courses and a hotline to:

  • raise teachers’ awareness of bullying;
  • help schools set rules on preventing bullying; and
  • help schools react in specific cases.

4. Investing in education and training

Public spending on education has increased. Inflation-adjusted education spending rose, from EUR 8 361 million in 2018 to EUR 9 299 million in 2019. This was a comparatively high increase of 11.2% versus 1.9% at EU level. With 4.9%, education spending as a share of GDP was slightly above the EU average (4.7%) in 2019. Czechia earmarked 11.8% of its overall public spending to education, which was above the EU average (10%). Compared to 2018, spending increased most in tertiary education (by 10%), and almost equally for pre-primary, primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education (by 7-8%). The allocation of government funding for the different levels of education remained broadly stable over the last decade. In 2019, this was 16% for tertiary education, 46% for secondary education and 23% for pre-primary and primary education. The latter share remains rather low compared to the average share allocated to pre-primary and primary education in the EU (33%).

Several reforms might have an impact on future education spending by central government. Since 2020, following a funding reform of primary and secondary education, funding is provided per hours taught and according to the quality of pedagogical work instead of on a per pupil basis (cf. 2020 Education and Training Monitor). Funding is allocated to schools directly from the state budget and not by regional authorities as before, thus re-centralising financial decision-making at central government level. Following a reform of early childhood education, funding for child groups will also be provided by central government. The rising pay levels of teachers and the need to hire more teachers in the future add to increasing demands on the education budget (Münich, Smolka, 2021).

Box 1: The Czech Recovery and Resilience plan

The EU will give out EUR 7 billion in grants to Czechia under the Recovery and Resilience Facility (RRF) to help it emerge stronger from the COVID-19 pandemic. Investments related to education and skills represent about 18% of the total RRF budget. The Czech Resilience And Recovery Plan3 aims to build childcare facilities, provide digital equipment to schools, especially to disadvantaged schools, improve digital skills of teachers, revise the IT curriculum, provide catch-up classes for pupils after the return to school, modernise higher education, invest in key academic sites and expand life-long learning in digital technologies.

5. Modernising early childhood and school education

Capacities and participation in early childhood education and care could be further improved. In 2020, 86.3% of children aged between 3 and 6 participated in early childhood education compared to 92.8% at EU level. After a slow, but steady participation increase in the last decade, progress has stalled in recent years. Regional and socio-economic differences persist. Whereas in the east of the country, around 98% of children above the age of three participate in childcare, for the region around the capital this was only 80.5%, pointing to a capacity shortage in urban areas. Children at risk of poverty and social exclusion are less likely to attend childcare (79.4%). Roma children record an even lower participation with 34% (FRA, 2018). Pandemic-related partial closures of childcare facilities might deepen these inequalities. The means through which education should be ensured at a time of long-term closure of facilities was not officially formulated during the spring 2020 lockdown, although the last year of pre-school education is compulsory in line with the Education Act. Even though many pre-school directors wished to have more centrally provided information and methodological guidance, pre-schools generally managed the situation and strived to fulfil their role in ensuring pre-school education during the state of emergency. For example, most pre-schools offered ideas for children’s development activities at home (CSI, 2020a).

Early childhood education, particularly the compulsory pre-school year, is a priority of the education strategy 2030+. The benefits of going to pre-school were highlighted in a recent study which analysed the results of the 1995 reform extending parental leave from 3 to 4 years. It concluded that the additional year of parental care at home, instead of attending pre-school, negatively impacted the children’s future educational and labour market outcomes. Those children were 4 pps more likely to be neither studying nor working at the age of 21-22, and 6 pps less likely to study at university. For those whose caregiver did not hold a higher education degree, this was 9 pps and 12 pps respectively (Bičáková et al., 2021). The 2030+ education strategy aims to increase the available places and participation rates and improve the quality of pre-schools, e.g. by lowering the teacher-child ratio, reducing the high proportion of children that enter primary school late and supporting teaching staff (MŠMT, 2020a).

The low participation in early childhood education of under three-year-olds remains a challenge. Czechia recorded, with 6.3%, the lowest participation level in formal childcare in the EU (35.5%). An amendment to the Child Group Act entered into force in October 2021. It is expected to provide stable public funding for child groups which are to date often EU-funded. Plans for a more far-reaching reform of the system were abandoned; child groups will continue to welcome children up to the age of six and will not be renamed as crèches. New requirements in terms of infrastructure and staff profiles are aimed at improving the quality of childcare. Critics of this reform warn that the new quality requirements imposed on child groups could lead to fewer places, especially in urban areas. The ministry of labour and social affairs, who remains responsible for child groups, plans to make funding available for child groups to adapt to the new requirements. The EU’s Recovery and Resilience Facility will also provide funding to expand childcare. Under this facility, the government plans to increase the number of childcare facilities by 40% until the end of December 2025; it will also carry out a study to investigate the barriers to participation in early childcare (Gov, 2021a).

As teacher shortages persist, Czechia is looking for new ways to train and retain teachers. The 2030+ education strategy sets out measures to make the teaching profession a more appealing career path (MŠMT 2020a). Previously, measures were taken to widen access to the teaching profession and reduce shortages (cf. 2020 education and training monitor). The intense public debate around opening alternative pathways to the teaching profession continues. However, even critics admit that a stronger link between study and practice is needed to improve the job retention and job satisfaction of teachers. Only two thirds of current teachers reported that they have gained classroom practice during their studies – less than any of their European peers (Eurydice, 2021).

Teachers’ salaries are increasing. The government is on track to reach its pledge to increase teachers’ salaries to 150% of their 2017 levels by 2021. Czechia was one of the EU countries with the highest increase of teachers’ salaries between 2014 and 2019, including starting salaries (Eurydice, 2020b). Pay also became fairer as it was decoupled from changes in the number of pupils attending a particular school. Even if teachers’ salaries remain rather low compared to other university graduates, this is a good step to raise the appeal of the teaching profession (Münich, Smolka, 2021).

After the adoption of a new multiannual strategy for the inclusion of Roma, changes in practice are needed to improve the educational success of Roma pupils. Improving the educational attainment of Roma is one of the aims of the new 2021-2030 Czech Roma Inclusion Strategy. It acknowledges that most of the previous strategy’s aims have not been achieved. Training teachers on how to work with diverse classrooms, providing support for pre-school education and setting up school counselling services are some of the measures proposed in the new strategy (Gov, 2021b). Roma children and pupils from disadvantaged backgrounds are often overrepresented in certain schools. With 57%, the early school leaving rate of Roma children was more than nine times higher than among the general population (FRA, 2018). The problem of ‘segregated schools’ persists especially in primary education, despite previous de-segregation efforts (MŠMT, 2020a). Full implementation of the new Roma strategy will be crucial to make progress on de-segregation.

High inequalities remain a key challenge for the Czech education system, even more so in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic. Czech schools were closed or partially closed for 46 weeks between March 2020 and September 2021. This was one of the longest closures across the EU (UNESCO, 2021). The related learning losses are higher among disadvantaged pupils (Blaskó et al., 2021). As a result, inequalities were made worse by the pandemic. Reducing inequalities is one of major aims of the 2030+ education strategy, for example by avoiding parallel educational structures. Lowering the number of students that leave basic education early to move on to more selective multiannual secondary schools is essential in this respect. The Recovery and Resilience Facility will help to reduce inequalities in education through more support for:

  • schools with a high proportion of children from disadvantaged socio-economic backgrounds;
  • training and mentoring of teachers dealing with diverse groups of pupils; and
  • additional tutoring for children at risk of failure due to the prolonged remote learning caused by the pandemic.

The Czech Recovery Plan also envisages investing in digital equipment for schools to ensure access to learning for disadvantaged pupils.

Policy experimentation introduces a new level of support for schools. The Czech Education Ministry is piloting a new structure, the ‘middle points of support’ (střední článek podpory), which can potentially reduce inter-school inequalities. These bodies have an advisory role, adding a support layer between individual schools and government (local and central). They provide methodological support, help schools cooperate with each other, inform them of developments in their region (e.g. available grants from government), reduce the administrative burden of schools and help organise professional training. The ‘middle points of support’ facilitate communication and information flows between schools and central government. They consist of experts with hands-on experience in education, such as former school principals. Czech schools have a high degree of autonomy compared to their EU counterparts, which is generally seen as positive feature of an education system (TALIS 2018).

Czech students performed very well in maths and science, but do not feel confident about their abilities. With an average score of 533 points in maths and 534 points in science, Czech students outperformed most of their European peers (EU average: 513 points in maths and 514 points in science) (TIMSS 2019). Yet, Czech pupils had some of the lowest self-confidence levels in maths and science in the EU. This paradox has been pointed out by the Czech School Inspectorate and was subject of public debate (CSI, 2020b). Higher self-confidence levels are associated with better performance, raising the question if educational outcomes could be further improved by strengthening pupils’ confidence.

Figure 4 - Pupils' average achievement in science and maths, TIMSS 2019

Source: 2019 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS).

Early school leaving is slowly rising. The overall share of 18-24 year-olds with at most lower secondary education was 7.6% in 2020, up from 6.7% in the previous year. While below the EU-level target (less than 9%), it remains above the national ‘Europe 2020’ target (5.5%) and has increased at the second highest rate across the EU in the last decade (+2.7pp between 2010 and 2020 v an EU average of -4pp). The national average hides regional disparities: in the Karlovy Vary and Ústí nad Labem regions the early school leaving rate was 17.4% in 2020. Among marginalised groups such as Roma there are also significantly higher rates of early leaving (see above). Young people with disabilities (aged 18-24) also tend to leave school earlier than those without. Reasons lie in the shortage of relevant professionals such as specialised educators, school psychologists and school counsellors, as well as insufficient training of teaching assistants and cumbersome administrative procedures to request additional support for students with special educational needs (Šiška, Kanova 2021). Reducing early school leaving is one of the aims of the education strategy 2030.

Box 2: The European Social Fund helps to develop teaching and learning about democratic values in schools

The project ‘Experience democracy’ helped to promote democratic values and respect for cultural differences, and to prevent extremism, xenophobia and other negative phenomena in society. Eighteen primary schools were involved in the different activities. The project was carried out between September 2018 and August 2021 with a budget of EUR 130 450. More information at

6. Modernising vocational education and training and adult learning

Vocational education and training (VET) is popular and graduates fare well on the labour market. The share of upper secondary school pupils participating in VET was 70.5% in 2019. The employment rate of VET graduates, one to three years after graduation, is 84.8%, whereas the EU average is 76.1%.

Czechia has focused on a systemic approach to skills development. Skills shortages could worsen, notably in the digital sector. While the level of basic digital skills is above the EU average, further efforts are needed to promote advanced digital skills (only 24% have advanced digital skills compared with 31% as an EU average). To fully capture the benefits of digitalisation and labour market automation, initial and continuous education and training on digital skills is needed: Digital skills are an important part of the 2030+ education strategy, focusing on the development of digital skills of teachers, revision of the curriculum and ensuring the support of pupils’ digital literacy. Under the Recovery and Resilience Facility, Czechia plans to invest in reskilling and upskilling the employed and the unemployed; by 2025, 130 000 people are expected to have participated in training courses on digital and other skills required by the digital transition and Industry 4.0 and regional training centres will be equipped to provide life-long learning in these areas.          

The 2030+ education strategy introduces major changes in vocational education and training (VET). It aims at a gradual career choice, postponing specialisation and reducing the total number of study fields. The changes also include broadening the profile of some VET subjects and eliminating outdated ones. Under the strategy, interdisciplinary content will be promoted in fields such as electronic engineering, mechanical engineering or computer science. A system of learning units, acquisition of qualifications and their sub-elements as specified in national qualifications framework in the course of education will be implemented. These principles will also be applied at the horizontal - i.e. interdisciplinary – level. The current curriculum will be revised, too. Professional and transferable competences will be strengthened. The revision will focus on digitisation, automation, robotics and other high added value fields. One of the most important novelties of the VET transformation is introducing a modular curriculum and more (practical and theoretical) teaching carried out in cooperation with employers. Employers' organisations and business representatives will be involved in the process of sectoral optimisation and content updating to meet the requirements of the labour market.

Increasing participation in adult learning remains crucial, especially for low-skilled adults. In 2020, 5.5% of adults (25-64 year-olds) participated in life-long learning, falling significantly short of the EU-level target of 15% and the EU average of 9.2%. The pandemic negatively influenced the participation rate, which fell by 2.6 pps compared to 2019. On the other hand, the share of adults (16-74 year-olds) with basic digital skills increased to 62%, 6 pps above the EU average. The share of low-skilled adults remained rather low in 2020 with 5.9% (EU average 21%). More than half of the low qualified adults (57%) had a job in 2020 which is in line with the EU average. That said, the share of low-skilled adults who participate in life-long learning stood at only 2% in 2020, a drop of 1.1 p.p. compared to the previous year.

7. Modernising higher education

Tertiary educational attainment remained broadly stable. Among 24-35 year-olds, 33% held a tertiary education degree in 2020 compared to an EU average of 40.5%. Whereas this share increased considerably between 2010 and 2017, it has remained broadly stable since then. The gender gap increased slightly compared to the previous year, with 40.4% of women holding a higher education degree, while only 26.1% of men held one. With 14.3 pps, this gender gap is higher than the EU average (10.8 pps). The EU-level target of 45% of tertiary educational attainment is not yet within reach. Higher education graduates were in demand on the labour market: with 90.8% in 2020, the employment rate of recent university graduates remained high and well above the EU average of around 84%.

New strategic goals and funding aim to increase the flexibility and labour market relevance of higher education. In January 2021, the new strategic plan for higher education ‘SP2021+’ was put in place. It will apply for 10 years and is accompanied by a strategy for the internationalisation of higher education (MŠMT, 2020b). Strengthening the autonomy of higher education institutions, while holding them accountable to the public, is formulated as a leading principle. Taking the experience with distance learning during the pandemic into account, offering more flexible and blended learning opportunities, also for life-long learning, is a priority.

Financial support will be made available to higher education institutions to:

  • improve the digital skills of staff;
  • develop quality standards in distance learning; and
  • build the required digital infrastructure.

Additionally, funding from the Recovery and Resilience Facility will support the modernisation of universities: by 2026, 35 new study programmes will be created in areas lacking highly-skilled employees (for example cybersecurity, artificial intelligence, Industry 4.0, e-government services) as well as 20 life-long learning courses, including through micro-credentials. Key academic sites in medicine, biomedicine and pharmaceutical science will be expanded thanks to funding from the Recovery and Resilience Facility. Universities in Brno, Olomouc and Prague participate in the European University Alliances, funded from the Erasmus+ programme. By strengthening their collaboration across Europe, they will modernise further, make life-long learning and mobility a reality and better engage with society.

8. References

Bičáková, A., Kalíšková, K., Zapletalová, L. (2021), Maminka, nebo školka? Dopady prodloužení čerpání rodičovského příspěvku na budoucí vzdělání a pracovní uplatnění dětí [Mom or preschool? How an extension to paid parental leave affects children’s future education and employment], IDEA CERGE EI, Study 6/2021.

CSI (2020a), Vzdělávání v mateřských školách v období nouzového stavu. Tematická zpráva [Education in kindergartens during the state of emergency - thematic report],

CSI (2020b), Mezinárodní šetření TIMSS. Národní zpráva [TIMSS International Survey. A National Report].

CSI (2021a), Distanční vzdělávání v základních a středních školách. Přístupy, posuny a zkušenosti škol rok od nástupu pandemie nemoci Covid-19. Tematická zpráva [Distance Education in Primary and Secondary Schools. Approaches, Shifts and Experience of Schools a Year after the Onset of the Covid-19 Pandemic. A Thematic Report],

CSI (2021b), Vstřícné prostředí a vztahy ve škole a jejich vliv na průběh a výsledky vzdělávání [A welcoming environment and relationships at school and their impact on learning performance and outcomes]

CSI (2021c), Růstové nastavení mysli žáků a jeho vliv na výsledky vzdělávání [Pupils’ growth-mindset and its impact on educational outcomes – Pisa 2018 Secondary analysis]

Eurydice/European Commission/EACEA (2020a), Equity in school education in Europe - Structures, policies and student performance, Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.

Eurydice/European Commission/EACEA (2020b), Teachers' and School Heads' Salaries and Allowances in Europe 2018/19. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.

Eurydice/European Commission/EACEA (2021), Teachers in Europe: Careers, Development and Well-being. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.

FRA (European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights) (2018), Second European Union Minorities and Discrimination Survey Roma – Selected Findings. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.

Government of the Czech Republic (2021a), Národní plán obnovy [Recovery and Resilience Plan].

Government of the Czech Republic (2021b), Strategie rovnosti, začlenění a participace Romů 2021–2030 [Roma Equality, Inclusion and Participation Strategy 2021-2030],

MŠMT/Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports (2020a), Strategie vzdělávací politiky ČR do roku 2030+ [Strategy for Education Policy of the Czech Republic until 2030+],

MŠMT (2020b), Strategic Plan of the Ministry for Higher Education for the Period from 2021,; (annex).

Münich, D., Smolka, V. (2021), Platy učitelů v roce 2020 a výhled: Usne Česko na vavřínech? [Teachers’ salaries in 2020 and beyond: will the Czech Republic rest on its laurels?], IDEA CERGE EI, Study 7/2021.

OECD (2019), PISA 2018 Results (Volume III): What School Life Means for Students’ Lives, PISA, OECD Publishing, Paris,

OECD (2021), Positive, High-achieving Students?: What Schools and Teachers Can Do, TALIS, OECD Publishing, Paris,

PAQ (2021), Distanční vzdělávání na jaře a podzim 2020: pohled rodičů. Report z longitudinálního výzkumu Život během pandemie [Distance Education in Spring and Autumn 2020: the Parents’ View. Report of Life During the Pandemic, a Longitudinal Research].

Partnerství vzdělávání 2030+ (2021a), Well-being,

Partnerství vzdělávání 2030+ (2021b), Chceme lepší atmosféru ve školách aneb možnosti podpory wellbeingu [We want a better atmosphere in schools – Options to support well-being],

Partnerství vzdělávání 2030+ (2021c), Těšíme se do školy [We are looking forward to school],

Šiška, J., Kanova, S./European Commission/DG Employment, Social Affairs and Inclusion/European Human Consultancy (2021), European Semester 2020-2021 Country Fiche on Disability Equality – Czechia, Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.

Šťastný, V. (2021). Shadow education in the context of early tracking: between-track differences in the Czech Republic. Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education.

TIMSS (2019), International Results in Mathematics and Science,

UNESCO (2021), Total duration of school closures,

Van de Velde S., Buffel V., Bracke P., Van Hal G., Somogyi N.M., Willems B., Wouters E. and C19 ISWS consortium (2021), The COVID-19 International Student Well-being Study. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 49(1).

Annex I: Key indicators sources

Indicator Eurostat online data code
Participation in early childhood education educ_uoe_enra21
Low achieving eighth-graders in digital skills IEA, ICILS.
Low achieving 15-year-olds in reading, maths and science OECD (PISA)
Early leavers from education and training Main data: edat_lfse_14
Data by country of birth: edat_lfse_02
Exposure of VET graduates to work based learning Data for the EU-level target is not available. Data collection starts in 2021. Source: EU LFS.
Tertiary educational attainment Main data:edat_lfse_03
Data by country of birth: edat_lfse_9912
Participation of adults in learning Data for the EU-level target is not available. Data collection starts in 2022. Source: EU LFS.
Public expenditure on education as a percentage of GDP gov_10a_exp
Expenditure on public and private institutions per student educ_uoe_fini04
Upper secondary level attainment edat_lfse_03

Annex II: Structure of the education system

Source: European Commission/EACEA/Eurydice, 2021. The Structure of the European Education Systems 2021/2022: Schematic Diagrams. Eurydice Facts and Figures. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.

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1 The OECD uses the term ‘social-emotional outcomes’ which focuses on school climate (bullying, teacher enthusiasm, school community etc.), student well-being (psychological/cognitive) and student interest in school (motivation, educational expectations).

2 (Minimising Bullying)