1. Key indicators
Figure 1 – Key indicators overview
|Education and training 2020 benchmarks|
|Early leavers from education and training (age 18-24)||5.3%||4.6%||14.0%||10.2%|
|Tertiary educational attainment (age 30-34)||31.6%||44.9%||31.1%||40.3%|
|Early childhood education
(from age 4 to starting age of compulsory primary education)
|Proportion of 15 year-olds underachieving in:||Reading||21.2%||17.9%18||19.3%||22.5%18|
|Employment rate of recent graduates by educational attainment (age 20-34 having left education 1-3 years before reference year)||ISCED 3-8 (total)||82.3%||86.0%||78.0%||80.9%|
|Adult participation in learning (age 25-64)||ISCED 0-8 (total)||14.8%||11.2%||7.9%||10.8%b|
|Learning mobility||Degree mobile graduates (ISCED 5-8)||:||4.0%18||:||4.3%18|
|Credit mobile graduates (ISCED 5-8)||:||:18||:||9.1%18|
|Other contextual indicators|
|Education investment||Public expenditure on education as a percentage of GDP||6.6%||5.4% 18||5.1%||4.6%18|
|Expenditure on public and private institutions per student in € PPS||ISCED 1-2||€7 20712||€6 80117||€6 072d, 12||€6 240d, 16|
|ISCED 3-4||€5 35312||€5 67217||:12||€7 757d, 16|
|ISCED 5-8||€8 35912||€9 51017||€9 67912||€9 977d, 16|
|Early leavers from education and training (age 18-24)||Native-born||5.0%||4.0%||12.6%||8.9%|
|Tertiary educational attainment (age 30-34)||Native-born||32.2%||47.1%||32.0%||41.3%|
|Employment rate of recent graduates by educational attainment (age 20-34 having left education 1-3 years before reference year)||ISCED 3-4||73.3%||79.0%||72.2%||75.9%|
Source: Eurostat; OECD (PISA); Learning mobility figures are calculated by DG EAC, based on UOE 2018 data. Further information can be found in Annex I and in Volume 1 (ec.europa.eu/education/monitor). Notes: The 2018 EU average on PISA reading performance does not include ES; b = break in time series; d = definition differs; u = low reliability; : = not available; 12 = 2012, 16 = 2016, 17 = 2017, 18 = 2018.
Figure 2 - Position in relation to strongest and weakest performers
Source: DG EAC, based on data from Eurostat (LFS 2019, UOE 2018) and OECD (PISA 2018).
- Investments prompted by the COVID-19 pandemic are well targeted.
- Pupils perform above the EU average in all three skills in PISA, though results in science and reading have decreased.
- Gender gaps and gaps between native born and pupils with migrant background are pronounced at all levels of education.
- The downward tertiary enrolment trend is continuing.
3. A focus on digital education
Digital skills are integrated into school education and the digital skills of young people are better than the EU average. Among 16-19 year-olds, 8% have low, 21% basic and 72% above basic overall digital skills, better than the respective EU averages (15%, 25% and 57%)1. According to the Digital Economy and Society Index (DESI) the share of information and communications technology (ICT) graduates in the total graduate population, at 3.5%, is relatively low2. ICT is integrated into compulsory subjects in schools (European Commission, 2019b), and informatics is an obligatory subject in the first grade of general secondary schools (60 hours) and in technical vocational and educational training (VET) schools (but not other VET schools). It is tested after secondary school in paper-based tests (European Commission, 2019b). Informatics and computer science are elective baccalaureate subjects. In 2016/2017, 17% of pupils in grades four-six of primary school chose optional informatics (RINOS 2018, p. 27). Students in upper secondary school are slightly more confident of their digital competencies than the EU average (European Commission, 2019), but this is not supported by the results of national tests, which suggest that students demonstrate only basic digital competencies (RINOS, 2018). In 2020, Slovenia received from the Council of the EU a country-specific recommendation to ‘strengthen digital skills’ (Council of the European Union, 2020).
Gender gaps in ICT are apparent. Gaps between girls and boys in schools are much higher than the EU average (e.g. at lower secondary school 18 pps more girls never code, compared to 6 pps in the EU) (European Commission, 2019). The gender gap in ICT employment is somewhat higher than the EU average; the percentage of ICT specialists in the labour market is a bit above the EU average (3.8% v 3.7%) and the female share a bit lower (1.3% compared to 1.4%)3.
Students attend schools that are better digitally equipped than the EU average, but digital policy and support are weak. Students at all levels attend better digitally equipped and connected schools than the EU average (e.g. 89% compared to 72% for upper secondary schools), especially for high-speed connectivity (70% of upper secondary schools; EU average 18%) (European Commission, 2019), but connectivity is lower in remote areas. However, according to PISA, students in Slovenia report one of the lowest rates of ICT availability for their use at school (European Commission, 2020). Policies exist at national level for investments in school digital infrastructure and for development, availability and quality of digital learning resources (European Commission, 2019b), but few schools have ICT strategies (much lower than EU average at all ISCED levels) (European Commission, 2019), although primary schools have ICT coordinators.
Teachers are confident of their ICT skills, but do not use them much. There is no obligatory ICT training in initial teacher education (ITE), but teachers’ digital competencies are assessed before entry into the profession. Training (often online) is provided in continuing professional development (CPD), for which the need is defined in the general teacher competence framework and assessed through the European self-assessment tool TET-SAT (European Commission, 2019b). Very few teachers report a high levels of need for this kind of CPD (8.5%; EU-22 18%). In the past 2 years, fewer than the EU average have participated in ICT-related professional training (European Commission, 2019). A majority report that they feel well prepared to use ICT in teaching (67% compared to EU average 37.5%) (OECD, 2019b), though the crisis showed insufficient knowledge. However, according to the Index of Readiness for Digital Lifelong Learning, most teachers are not digitally enabled and skilled, especially in primary and secondary education. Older teachers’ digital competencies need improvement, and primary and secondary school teachers need to use digital methods more (CEPS, 2019). The percentage of teachers who let students frequently or always use ICT for projects or class work is 36.5%, one of the lowest in the EU (EU-22 46.9%) (OECD, 2019b).
The COVID-19 response was effective, even if somewhat delayed by the change of government. Slovenia already had the digital teaching materials, created mostly in 2005-2015 (Čuk, A. et al., 2014), networks for the exchange of good practice available on the i-ecosystem web-page4, and good infrastructure. The change of government during this period led to some changes in instructions5 and there was a strong reliance on voluntary help6. Pupils asked for clearer guidance and more harmonised coordination of schools’ actions7. However, distance education seemed to function well in most cases, with both teaching materials8 and lessons for teachers on how to provide online teaching9 provided on the central web-site (which also enabled online classrooms, teachers’ collaboration, professional development and tools)10 and other relevant sites.
4. Investing in education and training
Slovenia invests more in education and training than the EU average, though spending is still lower than before the previous economic crisis. In 2018, Slovenia spent 5.4% of its GDP on education, compared to the EU-27 average of 4.6%. This is still lower than before the previous economic crisis, when it was 6.5%, but increases are planned in the budget for the next 2 years (Proračun, 2019), and spending increased by 3.2% between 2017 and 2018. The share of total general government expenditure spent on education (12.4%) is also above the EU-27 average (9.9%)11. The shares for pre-primary, primary and tertiary education are higher than the EU-27 average (37.9% v 34.1% and 17.7% v 16.4%12). Investment in higher education has increased since 2017 (in 2019 it was 7.5% higher than in 2018), towards the target of one percent of GDP (NRP 2020, p. 35).. Due to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, the remaining EU Structural and Investment funds for 2014-2020 (EUR 280 million) are being reallocated under the Coronavirus Response Investment Initiative to areas with pressing needs, including education, where they will target remote learning infrastructure to help students and teachers without requisite equipment (NRP 2020, pp. 40-41).
Issues raised by the Constitutional Court’s decision on public funding of private primary schools have finally been resolved. In 2015, the Constitutional Court decided that all private basic school programmes should be 100% funded by the government, not 85% as regulated by law. This caused dissention, as this reduces funding for public schools, and diverging interpretations. In April 2020, the Constitutional Court clarified that this applies only to the obligatory part of their programme13.
Government is making investments to address COVID-19 challenges. Due to the disruptions caused by COVID-19, the government has decided to support tertiary students who are not covered by pension and disability insurance with a one-off solidarity allowance of EUR 15014. EUR 1.42 million will be spent on co-financing the publication of bilingual textbooks and e-materials in minority languages (Italian, Hungarian and Roma), to ensure access to distance education. From EU funds, EUR 4 million will be used to fund tools to implement distance education and purchase 4 220 laptops for students and teachers who need them15.
5. Modernising early childhood and school education
Participation in early childhood education is approaching the EU benchmark. Formal childcare attendance by children under 3 is high, at 46.3% in 2018 (EU-27 34.7%)16. Participation between age 4 and the beginning of compulsory primary education stood at 93.1% in 2018, one p.p. better than in 2017, but still below the EU benchmark for 2020 of 95% and the EU-27 average of 94.8%. Participation is low among children from low socio-economic background and from migrant families (European Commission, 2019c). In May 2019, an Amendment of the Law on early childhood education and care was proposed that, if adopted, would ensure quality and ban unregistered childcare, but it now has to be re-approved before parliamentary procedure due to the change of government.
The education system responded well to COVID-19 closures but with some delays. Due to the COVID-19 outbreak, kindergartens and schools closed on 16 March and partially reopened on 18 May. Government decided not to provide ECEC for children of frontline workers17, but some municipalities sent ECEC teachers into homes. Kindergartens otherwise provided online guidance and support to parents. There were delays in schools organising distance education (some schools started a week later). Seven hundred pupils of lower socio-economic background, initially unable to participate due to lack of internet or computer18, were later provided with resources through donations19. In May 2020, around 1 000 primary school pupils (of mostly Roma and migrant background), corresponding to 0.5%, and around 1 000 secondary ones, corresponding to 1.3%, were not involved in distance learning and could not be reached (MESS, 2020). National external examinations at the end of sixth and ninth grade of primary schools were cancelled. For VET schools practical work will not be examined. Final exams (Matura) are taking place as normal with distancing measures. The practical part of school leaving exams is being assessed online or postponed.
Pupils perform above the EU average in basic competences, though mean scores for science and reading decreased and underperformance in reading has grown; early school leaving is low. The OECD’s Programme for International Skills Assessment (PISA) 2018 shows that mean scores in all three skills assessed are above the EU average, and for mathematics are among the best in the EU (509 points; EU-27 492). Though good, mean scores for science (507 points; EU-27 487) and reading (495 points; EU-27 487) have decreased: science shows a continuous downward trend (-12 points since 2006), and reading has decreased by 10 points since 2015. The share of underperformers is also below the EU average in all three skills: mathematics 16.4% (EU-27 22.9%), science 14.6% (EU-27 22.3%) and reading 17.9% (EU-27 22.5%). It has increased by 2.7 pps for reading since 2015, while remaining largely stable for the other two fields. The share of top performers is above the EU average for mathematics and science, but below for reading (OECD, 2019, Vol. I). At 4.6% the early leavers from education and training rate is among the lowest in the EU (EU-27: 10.2%)20 and below the Europe 2020 national target of 5%.
The gender gap in reading and science is growing. The gender gap in the share of low achievers in all three fields is above the EU average and growing, with boys performing worse. The gap is particularly pronounced in reading (13.9 pps gap, 1.8 pps higher than in 2015; EU-27 9.9 pps), a bit less for science (4.4 pps, 2 pps higher than in 2015; EU-27 2 pps). The gender gap is also clear in mean scores: in reading it is one of the highest in the EU (42 pps; EU-27 28 pps) and in science above the EU-27 average (10 pps; EU-27 0.7 pp.) (OECD, 2019, Vol. II). Boys are almost twice as likely to skip school as girls (22.9% compared to 12.7%) (OECD, 2019, Vol. III).
Figure 3 - Gender gap in reading and science performance, PISA 2018
Source: OECD 2019, PISA 2018. The EU average in reading does not include ES results
Migrant background, socio-economic status and school characteristics significantly affect educational outcomes. The difference between the average reading performance of learners with a migrant background (8.9% of students) and that of native students is one of the largest in the EU (63 points; EU 44.9 points), and has grown by 12 pps since 2015. Students with a migrant background are also much more likely to underperform (35.8% compared to 15.7% for native born) (OECD, 2019, Vol. II) – among the biggest gaps in the EU. The gap between schools with many such pupils and other schools is one of the largest in the EU (55 points; EU 26 points). Pupils with a migrant background are much more likely to skip school than native born (9.8 pps difference) than is usual (4.9 pps EU-27 average) (OECD, 2019, Vol. III). In 2019, the number of hours of Slovenian language lessons available to students with a migrant background in the first year of education has increased significantly from 35 to a minimum of 120 hours per pupil (and up to 180 for bigger groups) (Okrožnica, 2019) as a means to facilitate their integration. The mean reading score of pupils from low socio-economic backgrounds is 80 points lower than that of high SES pupils, lower than the EU average of 95 points, but still significant. Pupils in cities score 33 points better than students from rural areas (OECD, 2019, Vol. III).
Further improvements are taking place in schools. From 2019/2020 pupils in the first three grades of basic school obtain textbooks and workbooks from schools for free, all older basic school students can borrow textbooks from school textbook fund. . An increase in the number of non-obligatory hours of physical training to improve health is being piloted in 144 primary schools. In December 2019, government adopted a National strategy for the development of reading literacy until 2030. It sets goals for different age and target groups (e.g. 90% of 15 year-olds with at least basic skills in PISA and 10% at highest levels by 2030). A National Reading Literacy Council of experts for all stages of education will be formed to help in implementation.
The share of young teachers is low, and they question their choice of career more than older ones. The share of new teachers in the workforce is the lowest in the EU (3.9%; EU-23 11.6%), while the share under 30 is below the EU average (6.4% v 7.4%)21. Teachers under 30 are twice as likely to doubt that they have chosen the right profession as teachers over 50 (19 pps difference, the second largest in the EU) and to wish to change school (12.8 pps difference; EU-23 6.8 pps) (OECD, 2019b, Vol. II). This suggests possible problems for the future renewal of the teaching workforce, though student enrolment in teaching studies is stable. While the law from 2018 specifies that teachers (except vocational subject teachers) need at least a master’s degree, the proportion of schools with such teachers is very low (9.4%; EU-27 58.7%), and nearly twice as high for schools with advantaged pupils (13.2% compared to 7.2%) (OECD, 2019, Vol. II).
Box 1: Universities providing active support during COVID-19
In the University of Maribor, three faculties (Pedagogy, Science and Mathematics, and Philosophy) set up an educational support website for primary and secondary school pupils and teachers, called razlagamo.si, to help with distance education. The site contains a collection of materials and explanations for all primary and secondary school subjects, and provides possibilities for direct communication. The portal has a part for school teachers containing teaching materials and enabling them to collaborate, and a part for pupils. The pupils’ section contains materials and video explanations and an area called Conversation (Podporni pogovori ob težavah) where they can individually ask questions that will be answered by volunteer students or university teachers.
Medical students at the University of Ljubljana volunteered to help in hospitals and in homes for the elderly. Psychology students offered support services to the public through Skype and similar tools, and technical students produced masks and instructions for their making.
6. Modernising vocational education and training
Both the proportion of upper secondary students in VET and the employment rate of VET graduates are very high. Total enrolment in upper secondary VET remained stable in 2018 compared to the previous year, with 70.9% of students at upper secondary level attending vocational programmes. This is among the highest shares in the EU and well above the EU average (48.4%). The employment rate among recent VET graduates saw a decrease, from 84.5% in 2018 to 79.1% in 2019, in line with the 2019 EU-27 average of 79.1%.
Implementation of the 2017 Apprenticeship Act continued. Slovenia continues to closely monitor implementation of the new apprenticeship programmes introduced in 2018/2019 and 2019/2020. In 2019, the second round of evaluation focused on the challenges and improvements of assessment in apprenticeship (Cedefop ReferNet Slovenia, 2020a).
The strategy ‘Digital Slovenia 2020’ aims for more inclusive digital skills development. It includes activities such as modernising organisation and data management in innovative learning environments (2016-2022) through supporting teachers and managers in administration and management. The Slovenian educational network SIO2020 aims to put in place wireless networks in schools, acquire ICT facilities, and develop and supply e-services such as e-classrooms and MOOCs.
7. Modernising higher education
Tertiary attainment is above the EU average, but there are big gaps between men and women and between native and foreign born. Slovenia already achieved its national target of 40% tertiary educational attainment in 2013. In 2019, it was 44.9%, above the EU-27 average of 40.3%. The difference between the tertiary attainment of women and men (57.1% v 34.5%) is the second largest in the EU, a 22.6 pps gap compared to the EU average of 10.5 pps22,23.
Figure 4 - Student enrolments in EU-27 and SI, 2013 and 2018
Source: Eurostat, UOE, [educ_uoe_enrt02].
The downward trend in enrolments continues; the share of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) students is high. The number of students enrolled in tertiary studies is in a long-term decline (97 706 in 2013 v 76 534 in 2018)24,25. This means that the number of students fell by 21.7%26 in the period, which is partially explained by 8% reduction of population of enrolment age. The number of tertiary graduates in 2019 is the lowest for a decade. Most (84%) study in public institutions and the most popular subjects are business, administration and law (SORS, 2020). The share of students studying STEM is high (29.3%), with two thirds of them studying engineering, manufacturing and construction (18.4%) one of the highest such shares in the EU. STEM students constitute the largest group within short-cycle studies (35.4%)27.
Employment rates for all recent graduates including tertiary graduates are above the EU average. The employment rate of all recent graduates (ISCED 3-8) in 2019 (86%) is above both the EU benchmark for 2020 (82%) and the EU average (80.9%). For tertiary graduates it is 89.6%, above the EU average of 85%28. Employment rates for both categories have been improving since 2014.
University studies successfully shifted to distance education during the COVID-19 lockdown. Universities were the first educational institutions to close due to the outbreak of coronavirus, a week before the others. They successfully made the transition to distance teaching (85% of the entire teaching programme)29, with the only problem being lab work and practical exercises that cannot be done online. Their restart is planned after relaxation of measures or by September30. The University of Ljubljana reduced the requirements for advancement to higher years. The dates for new enrolment in higher education institutions were extended31. Universities restarted research work from 4 May.
Box 2: Innovative learning and teaching in higher education
An open call for development of innovative learning environments at all levels of education resulted in projects in three Slovenian universities (Ljubljana, Maribor and Primorska). They included preparation of professional bases for didactic use of ICT for teachers, recommendations for equipping schools with ICT and ensuring information support to teachers, strengthening digital competencies of student teachers, and modernising learning environments on pedagogical studies, resulting in some changes in curricula. The project targeted ITE, and through workshops, seminars and consultations trained higher education (HE) teachers and students in innovative didactic approaches and the integration of ICT into learning processes. The participants applied acquired knowledge to prepare new teaching approaches with the help of ICT technical support experts.
The project involved 256 HE teachers, of whom 238 were teaching on pedagogical study programmes, and 2nbsp;776 students - future primary and secondary teachers. Its results were helpful in dealing with the pedagogical challenges of the COVID-19 crisis.
Projects’ duration: 1nbsp;Aprilnbsp;2017nbsp;-nbsp;30nbsp;Septembernbsp;2018.
Call budget: EURnbsp;1.3 million (European Social Fund)
Links to projects:
8. Promoting adult learning
Participation in adult education is high, but that of the low-skilled needs improving. The participation rate of adults in lifelong learning slightly decreased to 11.2% in 2019, which is still higher than the EU-27 average of 10.8%. The biggest challenges are how to address target groups, fully meet goals and benchmarks and boost the globally low participation rate of the low-skilled and other vulnerable groups. Equally important is upgrading basic skills and competences and implementing publicly supported lifelong career guidance in companies. To enable lifelong career guidance development and adult learning the Ministry of Education, Science and Sport has invited public providers for adult Education to design a consortium of different partners (including companies) in different regions aiming to provide lifelong learning and career guidance for low-skilled and workers at risk jobs to raise their basic skills and vocational competences in tailor-made programmes. Slovenian Institute of the Republic of Slovenia for Adult Education (SIAE) provides all the professional support to the providers.
Slovenia continues to take steps to improve adult learning and the upskilling of workers, yet challenges remain. An important step is the design of the new National master plan for adult education (2021–2030). It will define the national policy for adult education and form the basis for concrete planning and to supplement the Adult Education Act. The 2017 ‘Slovenian development strategy 2030’ strongly emphasises ‘knowledge and skills for high quality of life for all’. Ten competence centres for human resources development and the strengthening of employees’ key competences are being established. The Slovene VET Institute (CPI) developed new continuing VET programmes adjusted to employers’ needs; more projects focusing on upskilling are ongoing. At the same time, implementation of the publicly financed ‘Basic School for Adults’ is hampered by low participation. Further development in recognition and certification of non-formally acquired knowledge, competences and skills also remains difficult. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic will increase the need for upskilling and reskilling.
In Slovenia, investment in adult education remains a challenge and a priority. Low-skilled workers and older workers are the most vulnerable groups in the labour market and their unemployment rate is still relatively high, though decreasing. Technological changes will require a more highly-educated workforce and, taking into account that the 45+ age group will be at least 20 more years in the labour market, there is a need for better investments in adult education at all levels to avoid more vulnerable groups on the labour market in the near future.
Many initiatives, mostly based on online assessment, are being taken in response to the extended period of lockdown due to COVID-19. Most education processes shifted to remote learning, through different digital means and social media. A book addressing digital education for adults has been published recently (March 2020): ‘E-education for Digital Society’.
In 2016, Slovenia presented Digital Slovenia 2020 – a strategy for the development of information society. The Digital Coalition is working on a coordinated digital transformation, coordinating policies and measures for capacity building, improving digital literacy across target populations, improving e-skills, e-inclusion and better integrating ICT in education and lifelong learning.
Cedefop; Centre of the Republic of Slovenia for Vocational Education and Training (2019). Vocational education and training in Europe: Slovenia [From Cedefop; ReferNet. Vocational education and training in Europe database]. https://www.cedefop.europa.eu/en/tools/vet-ineurope/systems/slovenia
Cedefop ReferNet (2020), Slovenia 2020 update of VET policy developments in the deliverables agreed in the 2015 Riga conclusions. Unpublished
Cedefop ReferNet Slovenia (2020a). Slovenia: evaluation of the apprenticeship system. https://www.cedefop.europa.eu/en/news-and-press/news/slovenia-evaluation-apprenticeship-system
Cedefop ReferNet Slovenia (2020b). Slovenia: new CVET programmes. https://www.cedefop.europa.eu/en/news-and-press/news/slovenia-new-cvet-programmes
Centre for European Policy Studies (CEPS), 2019. Index of Readiness for Digital Lifelong Learning, Brussels.
Council of the European Union (2020), Council Recommendation on the 2020 National Reform Programme of Slovenia and delivering a Council opinion on the 2020 Stability Programme of Slovenia
Čuk, A. et al (2014). Slovenski i-učbeniki (E-textbooks in Slovenia), Ljubljana: Zavod Republike Slovenije za šolstvo, 2014, http://www.zrss.si/digitalnaknjiznica/slovenski-i-ucbeniki
European Commission, DG CNECT (2019). 2nd Survey of Schools: ICT in education. https://ec.europa.eu/digital-single-market/en/news/2nd-survey-schools-ict-education (Slovenia - national report)
European Commission/EACEA/Eurydice (2019b). Digital Education at School in Europe. Eurydice Report. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.
European Commission (2019c), Education and Training Monitor EU Analysis, Volume I 2019. Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg. https://ec.europa.eu/education/resources-and-tools/document-library/education-and-training-monitor-eu-analysis-volume-1-2019_en
European Commission, JRC, (2020), JRC Technical Report: The likely impact of COVID-19 on education: Reflections based on the existing literature and recent international datasets, Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, 2020, https://publications.jrc.ec.europa.eu/repository/bitstream/JRC121071/jrc121071.pdf
Hergan, M; Šlander, M (2019). Adapting VET to digitalisation and the future of work: Slovenia. Cedefop ReferNet thematic perspectives series. http://libserver.cedefop.europa.eu/vetelib/2018/adapting_VET_digitalisation_future_work_Slovenia_Cedefop_ReferNet.pdf
Ministry of Education, Science and Sport (MESS) (2020) - Education Development and Quality Office (27 May, 2020). Izobraževanje na daljavo in otroci z učnimi težavami v času covid-19, draft internal report
NRP (2020). Nacionalni reformni program 2020. https://ec.europa.eu/info/sites/info/files/2020-europeansemester-national-reform-programme-slovenia_sl.pdf
OECD (2019 Vol. I), PISA 2018 Results (Volume I): What Students Know and Can Do, PISA, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://doi.org/10.1787/5f07c754-en
OECD (2019 Vol. II), PISA 2018 Results (Volume II): Where All Students Can Succeed, PISA, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://doi.org/10.1787/b5fd1b8f-en
OECD (2019 Vol. III), PISA 2018 Results (Volume III): What School Life Means for Students’ Lives, PISA, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://doi.org/10.1787/acd78851-en
OECD (2019-SI) PISA Country Note Slovenia, http://www.oecd.org/pisa/publications/PISA2018_CN_SVN.pdf
OECD (2019b Vol. I), TALIS 2018 Results (Volume I): Teachers and School Leaders as Lifelong Learners, TALIS. https://doi.org/10.1787/1d0bc92a-en
OECD (2019b Vol. II), TALIS 2018 Results (Vol. II): Teachers and School Leaders as Valued Professionals, TALIS, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://doi.org/10.1787/19cf08df-en
Okrožnica (2019) Seznanitev z novostmi 1.10.2019. https://www.gov.si/novice/2019-10-01-okroznica-seznanitev-z-novostmi/
RINOS (2018). Snovalci digitalne prihodnosti ali le uporabniki? Ljubljana. MIZŠ http://mizs.arhiv-spletisc.gov.si/fileadmin/mizs.gov.si/pageuploads/Aktualno/Porocilo_RINOS_30_5_18.pdf
Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia – SORS (2020). In 2019, 16,100 graduates completed tertiary education in Slovenia, the fewest in the last ten years. https://www.stat.si/StatWeb/en/News/Index/8801
Annex I: Key indicators sources
|Indicator||Eurostat online data code|
|Early leavers from education and training||edat_lfse_14 + edat_lfse_02|
|Tertiary educational attainment||edat_lfse_03 + edat_lfs_9912|
|Early childhood education||educ_uoe_enra10|
|Underachievement in reading, maths and science||OECD (PISA)|
|Employment rate of recent graduates||edat_lfse_24|
|Adult participation in learning||trng_lfse_03|
|Public expenditure on education as a percentage of GDP||gov_10a_exp|
|Expenditure on public and private institutions per student||educ_uoe_fini04|
- Degree-mobile graduates
- Credit-mobile graduates
|DG EAC computation based on Eurostat / UIS / OECD data|
Annex II: Structure of the education system
Source: European Commission/EACEA/Eurydice, 2020. The Structure of the European Education Systems 2019/2020: Schematic Diagrams. Eurydice Facts and Figures. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.
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