European Education Area Progress Report 2020

Education and Training Monitor 2020


1. Key indicators

Figure 1 – Key indicators overview
Croatia EU-27
2009 2019 2009 2019
Education and training 2020 benchmarks
Early leavers from education and training (age 18-24) 5.2% 3.0%u 14.0% 10.2%
Tertiary educational attainment (age 30-34) 21.3% 33.1% 31.1% 40.3%
Early childhood education
(from age 4 to starting age of compulsory primary education)
69.2% 81.0%18 90.3% 94.8%18
Proportion of 15 year-olds underachieving in: Reading 22.4% 21.6%18 19.3% 22.5%18
Maths 33.2% 31.2%18 22.2% 22.9%18
Science 18.5% 25.4%18 17.8% 22.3%18
Employment rate of recent graduates by educational attainment (age 20-34 having left education 1-3 years before reference year) ISCED 3-8 (total) 76.3% 75.8% 78.0% 80.9%
Adult participation in learning (age 25-64) ISCED 0-8 (total) 3.0% 3.5% 7.9% 10.8%b
Learning mobility Degree mobile graduates (ISCED 5-8) : 3.5%18 : 4.3%18
Credit mobile graduates (ISCED 5-8) : 3.6%18 : 9.1%18
Other contextual indicators
Education investment Public expenditure on education as a percentage of GDP 3.6%p 5.3%p, 18 5.1% 4.6%18
Expenditure on public and private institutions per student in € PPS ISCED 1-2 :d, 12 :17 €6 072d, 12 €6 240d, 16
ISCED 3-4 €3 33712 :17 :12 €7 757d, 16
ISCED 5-8 :12 :17 €9 679d, 12 €9 977d, 16
Early leavers from education and training (age 18-24) Native-born 5.3%u 3.1% 12.6% 8.9%
Foreign-born 3.7%u :u 29.3% 22.2%
Tertiary educational attainment (age 30-34) Native-born 21.4% 33.8% 32.0% 41.3%
Foreign-born 18.7%u 25.1%u 25.1% 35.3%
Employment rate of recent graduates by educational attainment (age 20-34 having left education 1-3 years before reference year) ISCED 3-4 72.9% 71.8% 72.2% 75.9%
ISCED 5-8 80.7% 79.1% 83.7% 85.0%

Sources: Eurostat; OECD (PISA); Learning mobility figures are calculated by DG EAC, based on UOE 2018 data. Further information can be found in Annex I and in Volume 1 ( Notes: The 2018 EU average on PISA reading performance does not include ES; b= break in time series; d = definition differs, u= low reliability, p = provisional, := not available, 12 = 2012, 16 = 2016, 17 = 2017, 18 = 2018.

Figure 2 - Position in relation to strongest and weakest performers

Source: DG EAC, based on data from Eurostat (LFS 2019, UOE 2018) and OECD (PISA 2018).

2. Highlights

  • Digital education is developing rapidly; Croatia was able to respond effectively to the COVID-19 crisis.
  • Participation in early childhood education and care (ECEC) and PISA performance are low, but measures are being taken to improve them.
  • Tertiary attainment is low by international comparison, as is the employment rate of tertiary graduates.
  • New occupational standards are being developed and the employment rate of vocational education and training (VET) graduates is growing.

3. A focus on digital education

Use of information and communication technology (ICT) in teaching is developing fast and young people have comparatively good digital skills. Developing digital content, tools and methods was one of the goals of the education strategy (Strategy, 2014). Two major projects – e-Schools1 and the curricular reform2, both currently being implemented across the system, are extending the use of ICT in teaching and its presence in the curriculum and providing equipment to schools, training to teachers and digital teaching content. The Strategic framework for digital maturity of schools adopted in March 20203 sets out a roadmap to 2030 in four areas: a digitally mature environment; digitally mature and confident teachers; ICT as support to teaching; and digital leadership. Since 2018/2019, informatics is a compulsory subject in the fifth and sixth grades of primary and the first grade of general secondary school (and optional in other grades), and ICT is also a transversal subject in all school grades from 2019/20204. Croatia is the only EU country where all 16-19 year-olds have at least basic digital skills (EU average 82%).

Teachers do not feel confident in their ICT skills but large-scale training will have a positive impact. Teachers report the highest lack of continuous professional development (CPD) in ICT skills in the EU (OECD, 2019b) (26.2%; EU average 18%); 36.2% of them (EU-22 37.5) feel well prepared to use digital tools. ICT is a non-obligatory part of initial teacher education (European Commission, 2019b), and ICT skills are not assessed before entry into the profession. The share of teachers who have used ICT for more than 6 years is the lowest in the EU (European Commission, 2019a). In the past year, Croatia has organised mass training of teachers (more than 40 000) and principals under the curricular reform and e-Schools projects. In 2019 a new model for professional advancement of teachers was adopted, rewarding teaching success, innovation and development of open digital education5.

Figure 3 - Share of primary students with teachers having experience in using computers/internet at school, 2017/2018

Source: 2nd Survey of Schools, Vol. I – Benchmarks, p. 45

Schools’ digital equipment is improving. Schools are far less digitally equipped and connected than the EU average. Students’ weekly computer use in school is below the EU average. The share of students with access to a virtual learning environment is well below the EU average at all school levels, both in school and from home (e.g. for lower secondary school 12% v 54% and 69% v 89%, respectively) (European Commission, 2019a). Primary school principals point to the lack of equipment as a main barrier to digital learning; their counterparts in secondary schools cite teachers’ weak digital competencies (Dekanić et al., 2019). Since 2019, the e-Schools project is providing all schools with equipment for classrooms and staff (to be completed by 2022). Pupils in primary schools are being provided with tablets through the curricular reform project – by 2022 all pupils in grades 5-8 should have one and there should be one per four pupils in grades 1-4. The government has purchased tablets for upper secondary school pupils receiving social assistance6. Croatia received a country-specific recommendation to ‘Increase access to digital infrastructure and services. Promote the acquisition of skills’. (Council of the European Union, 2020).

Building on current projects, Croatia was able to respond well to the COVID-19 crisis. The measures being taken under the curricular reform and the e-Schools project helped to enable the system to urgently move to distance education at the onset of the crisis. Even though only part of the programmed school equipment was in place, and not all teachers had been trained, the Ministry combined existing elements to rapidly and effectively provide online classes7.

4. Investing in education and training

Spending on education and training is above the EU average. In 2018, Croatia spent 5.3% of its GDP on education (EU-27 4.6%); the share of total general government expenditure (11.5%) was also above the EU-27 average (9.9%). Between 2017 and 2018, public spending on education rose by 1.5%, with the largest increase going to pre-primary and primary education (4.2%)8, probably reflecting the pilot phase of the curricular reform. The state education budget for 2020 received a 7.6% increase (HRK 18.6 billion), mainly to fund a three-step increase in teachers’ salaries agreed after a strike in 2019. Due to COVID-19, this will be delayed until 2021. Funding of higher education institutions (HEIs) through performance contracts is 20% higher this year.

There are measures to expand ECEC. Financing of ECEC is the responsibility of local government; there are big regional differences and poor provision in less-developed areas (Dobrotić et al., 2018). Recently, the Ministries of Demographics, Family, Youth and Social Policy and of Agriculture developed projects with EU funding for construction and reconstruction of almost 500 kindergartens, around 200 of which in locations with fewer than 5 000 inhabitants9. The Ministry of Demographics is also offering EUR 1.8 million to undeveloped local government units to improve availability and quality of ECEC (MDOMSP, 2020). The extent to which these initiatives will address needs is not yet clear.

5. Modernising early childhood and school education

Participation in ECEC is among the lowest in the EU. In 2018, formal childcare attendance for children under 3 (17.8%; EU-27 34.7%)10 was one of the lowest in the EU and so was early childhood education for those between age 4 and the beginning of compulsory education (81%; EU-27 average 94.8%), which was far below the EU benchmark for 2020 of 95%11. Progress since 2010 has been rapid, however (+10.6 pps for age 4 and upwards; EU-27 +2.2 pps) . Croatia has the biggest participation gap between high (70%) and low socio-economic background (SES) children (22%) and a significant urban-rural divide (UNICEF, 2018). Of 556 local self-government units, 76 (all among the 270 ‘undeveloped’ units) have no local ECEC provision12.

Measures are being taken to increase ECEC participation. Pre-school programmes of 250 hours are obligatory in the year before school, and free for children who have not attended kindergarten before (about 30%) (European Commission, 2019c). Barriers to ECEC participation include gaps in infrastructure, teacher shortages and the need to educate parents about its importance. The teachers’ trade union has argued that difficult working conditions – large numbers of children in groups, and long hours with no compensation for overtime – lead many to leave the job13. ECEC teachers were one of the 10 most-needed professions on the labour market in 201914. There was a proposal to hire primary teachers where there are no ECEC-qualified applicants, and to allow a 20% increase in group size (currently maximum 18-25 children, depending on age group) to tackle shortages. Stakeholders rejected the idea, citing the negative effect on quality. In February 2020, an Expert Committee for Monitoring and Development of ECEC was established and the Ministry of Demographics established a Directorate to coordinate policy.

Education had to adapt to the pandemic and other extraordinary events. Kindergartens and schools closed from 16 March due to the COVID-19 crisis. Despite opposition by teachers’ unions and parents15, primary schools partially reopened for younger pupils, with restrictions, on 11 May. In secondary schools, distance education continued until the end of the school year while in VET, activities that could not be handled online were delivered in schools or employer’s premises, with restrictions16. The final exam (‘Matura’) was delayed to June/July, with content taught in second half of the year in maths and Croatian excluded. On 22 March, Zagreb was hit by a major earthquake that severely damaged 26 of 226 ECEC facilities, 30 schools and several university buildings. At the beginning of the school year, schools had also been affected by a 36-day teachers’ strike; classes missed due to the strike had mostly been compensated before COVID-19 arrived.

Schools shifted rapidly to distance learning, but the wellbeing of students and equity were affected. While the shift to distance learning was rapid and successful overall, there were some adverse effects on equity and student wellbeing. A survey of 65 schools with Roma pupils showed that in 30% of these more than 30% of Roma students did not participate in distance classes17. A survey by the Institute for Social Research showed that pupils were overall satisfied with distance learning and the involvement of teachers, but that many were stressed about learning new content in isolation, preparation for the Matura and enrolment in HEIs (Ristić Dedić, 2020). In April, the National Centre for External Evaluation of Education launched an online platform to help students prepare for the Matura, with access to questions from previous Maturas plus explanations and guidelines to teachers on preparation of tasks and evaluation procedures (NCVVO, 2020).

Early school leaving is low, but higher in rural areas. Croatia’s early leavers from education and training rate of 3%18 is the lowest in the EU (EU-27 average 10.2%)19 and below its Europe 2020 national target of 4%. In 2013-2019, the number of students fell, due to the demographic decline, in both primary (9.37%) and secondary schools (19.17%), with much higher decreases in rural counties20.

Pupils’ basic skills are below the EU average, with significant gender gaps. The OECD’s Programme for International Skills Assessment (PISA) 2018 shows that pupils perform below the EU average in all tested subjects (reading 10 points, science 17 and maths 29). The shares of underperformers in science (25.4%; EU-27 22.3%) and maths (31.2%; EU-27 22.9%) are among the highest in the EU, and only in reading is underperformance around the EU average (21.6%; EU-27 22.5%) (OECD, 2019, Vol. I). Average scores and underperformance rates have both worsened over the long term21, and the proportion of top performers in all three subjects is also among the lowest (1.3%; EU 3.4%). Gender gaps are high and worsening in science and reading (with girls outperforming boys by 4 and 33 points, respectively), but have diminished in mathematics (where boys perform better) (OECD, 2019, Vol. II). Poor performance may reflect the effects of low annual teaching time in primary and lower secondary education (275 and 240 hours less than the EU averages), schools operating in shifts due to infrastructure shortages, the short compulsory schooling cycle of only 8 years, the outdated curriculum, now being modernised (European Commission, 2020), and the shortage of STEM teachers. With World Bank assistance, the government is formulating plans to increase instruction time, optimise the school network, improve assessment and introduce modern management practices over 10-20 years (World Bank, 2019). Experimental implementation of a ‘whole day school’ project is planned for the first three grades of primary (NRP 2020, p. 39 and 83). In January 2020, the MSE presented an application comparing results of pupils of various gymnasiums and vocational schools in the Matura and Matura results with their final primary and secondary grades22; the National Centre for External Evaluation of Education fears this might have a negative impact by increasing performance pressure and narrowing the focus of teaching to exam performance. Students enrolled in STEM gymnasiums show the best results. In other gymnasiums, there is bigger disparity between Matura results in maths and Croatian, and higher final grades given by schools in those subjects.

Figure 4 - Top performers in all three domains, PISA 2018

Source: OECD 2019, PISA 2018. The EU average does not include ES results.

The impact of SES is comparatively low. The underachievement gap between pupils from low and high SES is below the EU average (17.4 pps v 26.9 pps), and academic resilience23 at 15.2% is the second best in the EU, suggesting that the system can recognise and nurture the talents of disadvantaged students (OECD, 2019, Vol. II). New equity measure has been introduced: upper secondary school pupils who are beneficiaries of social assistance received tablets and SIM cards. The lack of specialists and support staff24, including psychologists and speech therapists25, is a challenge, despite some recent improvements. Administrative delays at the beginning of the school year meant that many special-needs pupils did not have the necessary teaching assistants26; the government has acted to prevent such problems in the future (Official Gazette, 2020). However, part of the responsibility to fund these staff was moved to local self-government units, which may create further problems and inequalities27.

School climate is good. Reported bullying and truancy are lower than the EU average, fewer students feel that they do not belong in school and impact on reading performance is lower (OECD, 2019, Vol. III). In February 2020, the MSE adopted the Action plan for the prevention of school violence 2020-2024, with a budget of EUR 4 million for legislative changes, data collection and prevention programmes (MZO, 2020b).

Teachers are well qualified. Almost all teachers are fully certified (99% in advantaged and 97% in disadvantaged schools) (OECD, 2019-HR) and most have a master’s degree, but half of schools report a lack of educational materials (OECD, 2019, Vol. II, p. 23). Teacher shortages exist in mathematics and physics, foreign languages, informatics and music (HZZ, 2020).

Implementation of curricular reform has started in all schools. Reformed curricula were adopted in 2019, have been implemented in four of twelve grades and will extend to all by 2022. Training and support materials have been developed to help teachers implement new elements such as learning outcomes, different types of assessment and teaching transversal themes. ICT equipment to support new teaching methods is being delivered (see digital section).

Box 1: Effective response to the COVID-19 crisis building on ongoing projects

The e-Schools project (pilot started in 2015, implemented in all schools in 2018-2022) introduced ICT into schools by providing infrastructure, equipment, digital educational resources and workshops for teachers. In parallel, curricular reform introduced new curricula and 122 digital methodological handbooks and further improved equipment for students and training of teachers. Together, they provided the basis for a rapid transition to distance education when the COVID-19 pandemic struck. Additional measures taken included:

  • digital platforms for teacher training and exchange of good practices were used to move classrooms and staffrooms online, including in VET and adult education;
  • 300 trained teachers mentored others on the transition.

Textbooks for new curricular subjects are 30% digital and non-governmental organisations also published e-materials. In cooperation with Chamber of Commerce, companies have also sent the materials used for in-company training of their staff.

Two weeks before schools closed, the Ministry started intensive preparations, producing new content and issuing guidelines to schools on how to organise distance learning. Later, it issued Guidelines for assessment and grading in virtual environments (MZO, 2020c), encouraging formative and project and problem-solving based assessment.

How distance education was organised:

  • Primary school, grades 1-4 (ages 7-10): lessons through public television and teachers communicating with parents through chat groups and social networks.
  • Upper grades of primary, and secondary school (ages 11-18): short video lessons on TV combined with online learning.
  • Each week, 25 hours of new TV programmes and 300 video lessons were created, more than 100 hours and 1 200 video lessons in total.
  • Video materials to prepare for the Matura were broadcast on public television.
  • Pupils in fifth and seventh grades of primary schools and secondary school pupils receiving social assistance had been receiving tablets since December. For sixth and eighth grade pupils, schools were tasked to lend tablets to pupils lacking computer and internet at home (MZO, 2020). Arrangements were made to allow several pupils in one household to do their schoolwork at different times.
  • The Minister maintained direct contact with pupils and teachers through her Facebook account.
  • A week after the move to distance education, psychological help teams were created to support pupils, parents and teachers, on the phone or online28.

These experiences will feed into a future Strategic framework for distance education. The Ministry has published an Action plan for distance education (MZO, 2020d) and Models and recommendations for schools in COVID-19 conditions (MZO, 2020e).

6. Modernising vocational education and training

Efforts to better align VET with the labour market are progressing slowly. The employment rate of recent VET graduates has further increased from 68.8% in 2018 to 73.9% in 2019, still below the EU-27 average of 79.1%. The Ministerial campaign promoting enrolment in the apprenticeship VET scheme (JMO) offered significantly more scholarships and grants for apprentices and companies in 2019/2020, yet participation in work-based learning programmes increases slowly. The establishment of Regional Centres of Competences and the experimental programme in dual education should improve the quality of VET and facilitate the identification of skills needs. These centres of VET excellence include innovative learning models, teaching excellence, high-quality infrastructure and technology, constructive and creative cooperation with social partners, public sector, businesses, research and higher education institutions and cooperation with similar centres across Europe. Once fully functional, Centres will provide a comprehensive set of services that go far beyond the regular educational offer in VET. In the first phase the centres were appointed in five sectors.

Development of occupational standards progressed in 2019/2020, but comprehensive curricular reform is still to come, i.e. qualifications standards in VET, sectoral VET curricula and a model school curriculum for VET. Full transition to a learning outcomes-oriented system linked to the labour market is planned for 2022/2023 as a response to rapid technological progress, globalisation and demographic challenges.

Box 2: Improvement in literacy as a basis for lifelong learning

This open call funded 21 primary and secondary school projects, developing activities and training materials within school curricula to enhance different types of literacy: mathematical, financial, digital, STEM, information, media, reading, and multicultural/intercultural. In total, 1 334 teachers and 2 771 students participated.

Budget: EUR 3 570 000 total (EUR 3 034 500 from the European Social Fund (ESF)).

Project example: Modern curricula for modern society

This project aimed to enhance the capacities of two VET schools in Split (the Maritime school and the School of Commerce and Trade), and create a framework for increasing students’ scientific, financial, digital, multilingual and multicultural literacy. Three new subjects were introduced that use ICT for data analysis, making graphics and interactive digital maps: Chemistry of the Sea; Personal Finance and Financial Environment; and Cultures of the World. Eighty students and 11 teachers participated. Teachers’ and pupils’ handbooks were produced and chemistry laboratories equipped. Schools established cooperation with the Institute for Oceanography and Fisheries.

Implementation period: 2017-2019.

7. Modernising higher education

Tertiary attainment (TEA) is low, with a significant gender gap, and the number of students is declining. TEA in 2019 is one of the lowest in the EU (33.1%; EU-27 40.3%), below the national 2020 target of 35%. The difference between women and men (41.8% for women v 24.7% for men) is very high, 17.1 pps compared to the EU-27 10.5 pps29. The numbers entering tertiary studies are declining, while available study places are increasing. In 2015/2016 the candidate-to-place ratio was 1:1.14; in 2018/2019 it dropped to 1:0.82, leaving 11 341 vacant study places (MOZVAG, 2019). A decrease in enrolment in 4-year secondary school programmes (36 900 in 2011 to 28 500 in 2018) may indicate a further decline in graduates after 2025 (Matković and Marcelić, 2020).

Employment rates for tertiary graduates are among the lowest in the EU. The employment rate of recent graduates from education and training (ISCED 3-8) in 2019 (75.8%) is below both the EU benchmark for 2020 (82%) and the EU-27 average (80.9%). For tertiary graduates it is also below EU average (79.1% v 85%)30. Almost 50% of students want more internship programmes during their studies; such experience can improve employment chances (AZVO, 2018). In March 2020 28 HEIs started implementation of the ESF funded project `Development and implementation of students’ internship programmes´31.

Internationalisation is low but growing. Learning mobility in 2018 was among the lowest in the EU (7.0% v EU 13.5%) and well below the EU benchmark of 20%. Inward mobility has grown from 0.4% in 2016 to 2.4%, albeit still among the lowest in the EU (7.8%) and with only 14.1% of incoming students coming from within the EU. Currently, HEIs report 3 007 courses in English for foreign students and more are planned. A quarter of HEIs have internationalisation strategies and 54% have special departments. Challenges include insufficient recognition of studies, administrative obstacles (recognition of prior learning, lengthy visa application and health insurance), students’ standard of living, and lack of motivation, competencies and resources for teachers (AZVO, 2019).

New measures are being undertaken but face opposition. Negotiations with universities on new performance contracts have been concluded, except with the University of Zagreb which also opposed adoption of the Act on Quality Assurance in Science and Higher Education, planned for September 2020 but now halted. New equity measures will deliver at least 357 new dormitory places for low-SES students.

HEIs successfully shifted to distance education during the COVID-19 lockdown. HEIs were supported by the SRCE University Computing Centre which centrally provided software and other support32 used by more than 70 000 students. After 8 May, activities that cannot be organised remotely, such as clinical practice, were delivered on site in small groups. From 25 May some physical classes could again be organised33.

8. Promoting adult learning

The key challenges for adult education persist. The adult education participation rate slightly increased to 3.5% in 2019, but remains much lower than the EU average of 10.8%34. Insufficient funding and low interest are still challenges. Adult education financing is not comprehensive, nor part of the mainstream education system, and is in the lowest third in the EU. Some ESF projects focus on digital education of adults.

There is a need to establish a framework for assessment, provision and validation of skills aligned to labour market needs. The Adult Education Act will be adopted in September 2020: institutions will have an obligation to continuously align their education programmes with occupational standards so that participants are ready for the job market on completion. The Act lays down a CPD obligation for teachers and trainers. A major change is the recognition of knowledge and skills previously acquired from life or work, which should allow greater mobility within the lifelong learning system.

9. References

Agency for Vocational Education and Training and Adult Education (forthcoming). Vocational education and training for the future of work: Croatia. Cedefop ReferNet thematic perspectives series.

Agency for Science and Higher Education - AZVO (2018), Analiza stanja i potreba u srednjoškolskom odgoju i obrazovanju vezanih uz informiranje o visokoškolskim izborima i postupcima upisa na studijske programe preko Nacionalnog informacijskog sustava prijava na visoka učilišta (NISpVU). Zagreb

Agency for Science and Higher Education - AZVO (2019), Neki aspekti internacionalizacije viskog obrazovanja: privlačenje stranih studenata, Zagreb

Cedefop (2020). Vocational education and training in Croatia: short description. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.

Cedefop ReferNet Croatia (2019a). Croatia: enrolment trends in favour of VET.

Cedefop ReferNet Croatia (2019b). Croatia: VET curricula reform places VET in the spotlight.

Council of the European Union (2020), Council Recommendation on the 2020 National Reform Programme of Croatia and delivering a Council opinion on the 2020 Convergence Programme of Croatia

Croatian Employment Service - HZZ (Hrvatski zavod za zapošljavanje) (2020), Anketa poslodavaca 2019, Zagreb, March 2020.

Dekanić, Sandrić, Gregurović (2019), TALIS 2018: Učitelji, nastavnici i ravnatelji – cjeloživotni učenici: Međunarodno istraživanje učenja i poučavanja, Nacionalni centar za vanjsko vrednovanje obrazovanja, Zagreb

Dobrotić, I., Matković, T. and Menger V., 2018. Analiza pristupačnosti, kvalitete, kapaciteta I financiranja sustava ranoga i predškolskog odgoja i obrazovanja u Republici Hrvatskoj, Ministry of Demographics, Family, Youth and Social Policy of the Republic of Croatia

European Commission, DG CNECT (2019a). 2nd Survey of Schools: ICT in education. (Croatia - national report)

European Commission/EACEA/Eurydice (2019b). Digital Education at School in Europe. Eurydice Report. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.

European Commission/EACEA/Eurydice (2019c). Key Data on Early Childhood Education and Care in Europe – 2019 Edition. Eurydice Report. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union

European Commission, (2020). European Semester Country Report Croatia 2020,

Gvozdanović,A., Ilišin, V., Adamović, M., Potočnik, D., Baketa,N., Kovačić,M. (2019), Youth Study Croatia 2018/2019, Friedrich‑Ebert-Stiftung e.V., Berlin, Germany;

Hrvatski zavod za javno zdravstvo (HZJZ – Croatian Institute of Public Health), (2019), Zagreb,

Jokić, Ristić Dedić (ed.), Što nakon srednje škole? Želje, planovi i stavovi hrvatskih srednjoškolaca, Agencija za znanost i visoko obrazovanje, Zagreb, 2019.

Matković, T. & Marcelić, S. (2020), Projekcije podudarnosti dostupne radne snage i potreba tržišta rada do 2030. godine: izazovi demografskih promjena i četvrte industrijske revolucije, Matica hrvatskih sindikata, Zagreb

Ministry of Demographics, Family, Youth and Social Policy – MDOMSP (2020), Odluka o raspodjeli financijskih sredstava općinama Republike Hrvatske za održavanje i razvoj predškolske djelatnosti u 2020., Zagreb,

Ministry of Science and Education - MZO (2020), Smjernice osnovnim i srednjim školama vezano uz organizaciju nastave na daljinu uz pomoć informacijsko - komunikacijske tehnologije, Zagreb, 2-4-2020,

Ministry of Science and Education - MZO (2020b), Akcijski plan za prevenciju nasilja u školama, 2020.-2024., Zagreb,

Ministry of Science and Education - MZO (2020c), Guidelines for assessment and grading in a virtual environment, Zagreb,

Ministry of Science and Education - MZO (2020d), Akcijski plan za provedbu nastave na daljinu, Model nastave na daljinu - Prijedlog,

Ministry of Science and Education - MZO (2020e), Modeli i preporuke za rad u uvjetima povezanima s bolesti COVID-19,

MOZVAG – Study Programmes Browser (Preglednik studijskih programa) (2019),

National Centre for External Evaluation of Education (NCVVO – Nacionalni centar za vanjsko vrednovanje obrazovanja) (2020),

National Reform Programme – NRP (2020), Government of the Republic of Croatia,

OECD (2019 Vol. I), PISA 2018 Results (Volume I): What Students Know and Can Do, PISA, OECD Publishing, Paris,

OECD (2019 Vol. II), PISA 2018 Results (Volume II): Where All Students Can Succeed, PISA, OECD Publishing, Paris,

OECD (2019 Vol. III), PISA 2018 Results (Volume III): What School Life Means for Students’ Lives, PISA, OECD Publishing, Paris,

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Official Gazette (2020), Pravilnik o izmjenama Pravilnika o pomoćnicima u nastavi i stručnim komunikacijskim posrednicima, Narodne Novine 22/2020,

Ristić Dedić, Z. (2020). Pilot istraživanje učeničkih potreba i suočavanja s izazovima online nastave u užujku 2020. Godine (Preliminarno izvješće) – Serija IDIZ-ovi vidici 003. Zagreb: Institut za društvena istraživanja u Zagrebu.;

Rubil, Stubbs, Zrinščak (2018), Dječje siromaštvo i strategije nošenja sa siromaštvom kućanstava u Hrvatskoj:kvantitativno-kvalitativna studija, Privredna kretanja i ekonomska politika, god. 26, br. 2

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World Bank (2019). Country Partnership Framework for the Republic of Croatia for the Period FY19 – FY24, Zagreb,

Annex I: Key indicators sources

Indicator Eurostat online data code
Early leavers from education and training edat_lfse_14 + edat_lfse_02
Tertiary educational attainment edat_lfse_03 + edat_lfs_9912
Early childhood education educ_uoe_enra10
Underachievement in reading, maths and science OECD (PISA)
Employment rate of recent graduates edat_lfse_24
Adult participation in learning trng_lfse_03
Public expenditure on education as a percentage of GDP gov_10a_exp
Expenditure on public and private institutions per student educ_uoe_fini04
Learning mobility:
- Degree-mobile graduates
- Credit-mobile graduates
DG EAC computation based on Eurostat / UIS / OECD data

Annex II: Structure of the education system

Source: European Commission/EACEA/Eurydice, 2020. The Structure of the European Education Systems 2019/2020: Schematic Diagrams. Eurydice Facts and Figures. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.

Comments and questions on this report are welcome and can be sent by email to:



1 Pilot phase 2015-2018 in 151 schools, implementation in all schools 2019-2022.

2 Pilot phase in 2018 in 74 schools, implementation in all schools 2019-2022.





7 For more details, see box on page 9.

8 Eurostat, COFOG 2018.


10 Eurostat, EU-SILC: [ilc_caindformal].

11 Eurostat, UOE: [educ_uoe_enra10].

12 Data from 2017, MSE: and Ministry of Demographics



15 68.2% were against reopening schools -



18 Low reliability.

19 Eurostat, LFS: [edat_lfse_14].


21 In science, e.g., the mean score has fallen by 21 points and the share of underperformers increased by 8.4 pps since 2006.


23 Percentage of disadvantaged students who scored in the top quarter of PISA 2018 tests in reading.

24 A study by the Association Psychological Spring showed that, of 880 primary schools, 233 employ fewer specialists than prescribed (Švigir et al., 2020).



27 (comments of the Head of the Department for Education in the City of Rijeka).


29 Eurostat, LFS: [edat_lfse_03].

30 Eurostat, LFS: [edat_lfse_24].