European Education Area Progress Report 2020

Education and Training Monitor 2020


1. Key indicators

Figure 1 – Key indicators overview
Slovakia EU-27
2009 2019 2009 2019
Education and training 2020 benchmarks
Early leavers from education and training (age 18-24) 4.9% 8.3% 14.0% 10.2%
Tertiary educational attainment (age 30-34) 17.6% 40.1% 31.1% 40.3%
Early childhood education
(from age 4 to starting age of compulsory primary education)
77.4% 82.2%18 90.3% 94.8%18
Proportion of 15 year-olds underachieving in: Reading 22.2% 31.4%18 19.3% 22.5%18
Maths 21.0% 25.1%18 22.2% 22.9%18
Science 19.3% 29.3%18 17.8% 22.3%18
Employment rate of recent graduates by educational attainment (age 20-34 having left education 1-3 years before reference year) ISCED 3-8 (total) 74.4% 83.9% 78.0% 80.9%
Adult participation in learning (age 25-64) ISCED 0-8 (total) 3.1% 3.6% 7.9% 10.8%b
Learning mobility Degree mobile graduates (ISCED 5-8) : 15.7%18 : 4.3%18
Credit mobile graduates (ISCED 5-8) : :18 : 9.1%18
Other contextual indicators
Education investment Public expenditure on education as a percentage of GDP 4.5% 4.0% 18 5.1% 4.6%18
Expenditure on public and private institutions per student in € PPS ISCED 1-2 :d, 12 €4 49917 €6 072d, 12 €6 240d, 16
ISCED 3-4 €3 907d, 12 €5 10217 :12 €7 757d, 16
ISCED 5-8 : d, 12 : 17 €9 679d, 12 €9 977d, 16
Early leavers from education and training (age 18-24) Native-born 4.9% 8.3% 12.6% 8.9%
Foreign-born :u :u 29.3% 22.2%
Tertiary educational attainment (age 30-34) Native-born 17.5% 39.9% 32.0% 41.3%
Foreign-born :u 52.8%u 25.1% 35.3%
Employment rate of recent graduates by educational attainment (age 20-34 having left education 1-3 years before reference year) ISCED 3-4 67.9% 84.8% 72.2% 75.9%
ISCED 5-8 83.5% 83.4% 83.7% 85.0%

Source: Eurostat; OECD (PISA); Learning mobility figures are calculated by DG EAC, based on UOE 2018 data. Further information can be found in Annex I and in Volume 1 ( Notes: The 2018 EU average on PISA reading performance does not include ES; b = break in time series; d = definition differs; u = low reliability; : = not available; 12 = 2012, 16 = 2016, 17 = 2017, 18 = 2018.

Figure 2 - Position in relation to strongest and weakest performers

Source: DG EAC, based on data from Eurostat (LFS 2019, UOE 2018) and OECD (PISA 2018).

2. Highlights

  • PISA 2018 results show persistently weak basic skills and a high level of inequalities, strongly linked to socio-economic background and regional disparities. From 2021, Slovakia plans compulsory pre-school education from age 5, which will particularly benefit vulnerable children.
  • Digitalisation receives significant policy attention, but during the COVID-19 closure equal access to quality education was further hampered by a lack of adequate digital resources.
  • Slovakia has reached the EU benchmark on tertiary attainment, but concerns persist about the quality of higher education. The employment rate of recent vocational education and training (VET) graduates is well above the EU average.
  • Investment in education and training is low and inefficient, and has an adverse effect on learning outcomes.

3. A focus on digital education

Slovakia puts greater focus on digital competences, but regular policy evaluation is lacking. The broad ‘Strategy for digital transformation of the Slovak Republic 20301’ and its 2019-2022 action plan outline the priority investment areas, including the adaptation of education and training for the digital age and enhancing competences for participating in digital society (digital citizenship) (Slovak Government, 2019). The current 2020 digital education strategy for school and higher education2, which aims to improve access to digital educational content, modernise digital infrastructure and improve the competences of teaching staff, will be followed up by the 2030 strategy3, which will additionally cover lifelong learning and cybersecurity. The level of digital skills in the wider population is comparatively low: in 2019, the proportions of the population (aged 16-74) with at least basic digital skills (54%) and above basic digital skills (27%) were below the EU-27 average (58% and 33% respectively) (European Commission, 2020b). The proportion of information and communication technology (ICT) graduates was slightly above the EU-27 average in 2018 (3.9% v 3.8%)4. Despite the improved focus on digital skills, there is no regular policy evaluation (European Commission/Eurydice/EACEA, 2019a), which could facilitate a more successful implementation.

While more young people have above basic digital skills, gaps are emerging. In 2019, the proportion of Slovaks aged 16-19 who reported having above basic overall digital skills had increased by 4 pps since 2015, reaching the EU-27 average of 57%. The proportion of those who considered their digital skills low has also increased to 16% (EU-27 15%). The ‘IT Fitness Test’ 2019 results indicate the need to improve critical thinking and evaluation of information, and highlight regional disparities in primary school pupils’ digital skills (Kučera, P. et al., 2019). More than half of pupils at lower secondary (52%) and upper secondary (60%) level use a computer for learning purposes at least once a week at school (European Commission, 2019a), but 20% of secondary school students with disadvantaged backgrounds still lack access to a computer for schoolwork (OECD, 2020c). Given the strong influence of socio-economic background on secondary school students’ learning results (OECD, 2019b; see section on PISA 2018 below), as well as regional disparities, expanded access to ICT for learning purposes for disadvantaged students and schools would be beneficial to prevent a digital divide (European Commission, 2017).

Appropriate support to teachers is crucial for digital education. Around half of teachers (47%) declare that they allow students to use ICT for class work (OECD, 2019a). However, the 2018 audit of lower secondary schools found that teachers used ICT mainly to present learning content, and that pupils rarely used it to enhance their knowledge (SSI, 2018). In addition to equipment and technical support, integration of ICT into teaching and a positive impact on learning outcomes depend on various factors, including appropriately designed curricula, teaching methodologies and teacher preparedness (Comi et al., 2016). In Slovakia, a majority of primary (63%) and lower secondary (62%) schools offer only weak support for digital education (EU-27 68% and 45% respectively) (European Commission, 2019a). Also, fewer teachers participate in subject-specific training on learning applications (European Commission, 2019a) while research shows that professional learning is most effective if it is linked to subject-specific and curriculum-relevant learning outcomes (Conrads et al., 2017). It is thus positive that Slovakia is developing ICT-supported methodologies for teaching school subjects with subject-specific training for teachers (Box 1). Evaluation of the project should provide further policy guidance on the use of digital technologies in education.

Box 1: Development of digital skills supported by the European Social Fund (ESF)

The objective of the ‘IT Academy’ is ‘developing a model for education and training focused on informatics and ICT to meet current and prospective needs of a knowledge-based society and labour market’. The project aims to support the development of digital skills of primary and secondary school students, the integration of new technologies into teaching, and the development of university study programmes in data science, internet of things, computer networks and business information systems. Teachers are trained in innovative methodologies linking ICT and inquiry-based learning in different subjects aligned with the curricula.

The project will involve 33 000 primary and secondary school students, 3 000 higher education students, 2 100 teaching and non-teaching school staff and 20 university teachers. 500 teachers and 6nbsp;500 upper secondary students are expected to take free tests for the European Certificate in Digital Learning. A further 460 schools have joined the project with their own equipment. Based on its results, a new ICT curriculum for primary schools is to be implemented from 2021/2022.

The project is being run from September 2016 until October 2020 by the Slovak Centre of Scientific and Technical Information in partnership with five Slovak higher education institutions. Total budget: EUR 21 046 596.77.


Efforts have been made to equip schools and pupils with ICT infrastructure, but, they are still insufficient. Providing digital infrastructure to schools has been an investment priority over the years, largely supported with EU funds. In 2018, 55% of students at ISCED 2 level and 44% at ISCED 3 level attended highly digitally equipped and connected schools (EU averages 52% and 72% respectively) but the proportion of ISCED 1 students in such schools was only 17% (EU average 35%) (European Commission, 2019a). The closure of schools in the COVID-19 lockdown intensified the need for equal access to quality digital learning, to improve educators’ digital skills, implement learning management systems, and provide support to disadvantaged families. Oonly 52% of children from poor households have internet access, and 28% have a laptop available; the proportions for Roma children are lower, at 40% and 21% respectively (Bednárik, M. et al., 2020). The Ministry of Education, in cooperation with non-governmental organisations, launched a website5 supporting online learning. The IT sector6 supported schools and teachers with software and digital solutions free of charge. Helplines were launched for parents and children in need of psychological or special educational support. The Ministry allocated EUR 500 000 for summer schools to compensate for educational losses caused by the school closure.

4. Investing in education and training

Investment in education and training remains comparatively low. In 2018, general government expenditure on education as a share of GDP remained below the EU average: 4% v 4.6%. Spending as a share of total public expenditure, at 9.5%, was also below the EU average (9.9%). Annual public spending per student in purchasing power standards remains among the lowest in the EU: in 20177, it was 4 348.5 for primary and lower secondary students, and 4 602.6 for post-secondary non-tertiary students. School principals overall report more material shortages than the OECD average, while those in disadvantaged schools report staff shortages more often than those in advantaged schools (OECD, 2019b Vol. II). However, higher investment alone is not sufficient to improve schools’ and students’ results; other countries with similar levels of cumulative expenditure per pupil achieve much better educational outcomes (European Commission, 2019d). Better efficiency and effectiveness of spending, and systemic changes to improve quality and equity along the lines put forward by MESA10 experts (Box 2), are needed. Under the 2014-2020 Operational Programme Human Resources, Slovakia earmarked approximately EUR 280 million (EUR 223.5 million from ESF) to finance additional staff at schools and kindergartens, yet with no clear vision on their post-project employment. A systematic approach to maintaining project results and evaluating the outcomes of ESF projects is needed to help guide further policy actions and achieve sustainable system-level measures.

Amid efforts to make education expenditure more effective, strengthened focus on vulnerable groups is needed. In 2019, the Ministries of Finance and Education carried out a spending review with ESF support. The government subsequently adopted a final report in March 2020 (MoF, 2020a). The review sets out measures to increase the inclusion of vulnerable groups, totalling EUR 262.8 million, of which EUR 107.1 million should be spent in 2021. Two thirds of the total package is intended for early childhood education and care (ECEC), especially for children from marginalised Roma communities. The review proposes ensuring early care to children below 3 living in such communities, increasing kindergarten facilities, strengthening inclusive teams, better support for disadvantaged students throughout the education process, piloting the adjustment of school districts to foster desegregation, measures to shift pupils from special to mainstream education, and related improvements in teacher training programmes. The 2020 national reform programme proposes defining standards for counselling services concerning disadvantaged children, including legal entitlement to such services. A new law on financing schools will be developed to increase the efficiency of the funds spent (MoF, 2020b).

The first action plan (2018-2019) of the 2018-2027 national programme for the development of education has been implemented. The key measures included introduction of compulsory education from age 5, efforts to improve continuing professional development of teachers, teachers’ salary increases, in particular for new recruits, reform measures in higher education aiming to improve the quality assurance system, and the creation of the independent Slovak Accreditation Agency for Higher Education. The new law on pedagogical staff (Act 138/2019) introduced the function of a career counsellor in VET and modularisation of complementary pedagogical studies (Cedefop ReferNet, 2020). The proposals planned up to 2027 (second to fifth action plans) have been published8.

Box 2: Supporting the debate on a comprehensive change in education — Learning makes sense

This project is a response to long-standing problems (increasing early school leaving (ESL) rate, low inclusiveness, poor educational outcomes, unattractiveness of teaching, low quality of tertiary education) and develops a comprehensive proposal for change to the system, as well as processes for change management.

The MESA10 think tank’s proposal builds on the results of extensive research whose scope and approach was unique in Slovakia (421 individual and group interviews, 15 322 respondents). All relevant legislation and guidance in five thematic areas was analysed, covering content and form of education, selection, preparation and development of teaching staff, individualised support for learners, permeability and openness of the education system and governance and financing of education. Throughout the project, MESA10 experts engaged in active cooperation with practitioners and policy-makers. The intention of the project was to provide findings for further discussion on the education system and solutions to its weaknesses.

The project was implemented by MESA10 between May 2018 and May 2020, funded under Operational Programme – ‘Effective Public Administration’, with a budget of EUR 284 098.45.


5. Modernising early childhood and school education

Slovakia aims to increase participation in ECEC; however, high quality and inclusiveness have to be ensured. After years of stagnation, in 2018 the participation rate of children over 4 increased by 4 pps compared to 2017, reaching 82.2% (EU-27 94.8%). In 2018, several new kindergartens and classes were opened (Eurypedia, 2020). However children from disadvantaged backgrounds attend ECEC less than their affluent peers, and often attend poorer-quality ECEC services (Frazer, H. et al., 2020). In 2018/2019, only 41% of children aged 3-5 from families receiving the ‘benefit in material need’ (2 pps less than in 2017/2018), and 32% of children aged 3-5 from marginalised Roma communities were enrolled in kindergartens (MoF, 2020a). Compulsory pre-school education for 5 year-olds will be implemented from 20219. Creating a legislative framework for an integrated education system and care for children from 0-6 (MoF, 2020b) would facilitate decision-making and effective investment.

The OECD Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) shows persistently low educational outcomes. According to the PISA 2018 survey, despite some improvement since 2015, notably in mathematics, Slovak 15-year olds’ overall performance in all areas tested is still significantly worse than 2009 and below the EU average. The proportion of low achievers is significantly above the EU-27 average (31% v 22.5% in reading, 29% v 22.3% in science, and 25% v 22.9% in mathematics). The high rate of students who are underachievers in all three domains, at 17%, (EU-27 13.4%) is likely to translate into serious problems in further education and later in life (European Commission, 2019d). The particularly low share of top performers at 1.8% (EU-27 3.4%) suggests that the education system does not support high skills needs either.

Socio-economic status continues to have a strong influence on students’ performance. More than half of all pupils in the bottom social quartile are low achievers (51.9% v EU 36.4%). The index of isolation of disadvantaged students from high achievers, at 0.76, is among the highest in the EU (Figure 3), indicating that disadvantaged students are unlikely to be in the same school as high-performing students, which may affect their performance. Socio-economic segregation across schools threatens social cohesion, and can also widen inequalities as disadvantaged students are more at risk of being left behind (OECD, 2019b Vol. II; Habodászová, Ľ., 2019). Fifteen year-olds from advantaged backgrounds outperformed those from disadvantaged backgrounds in reading by 106 points (EU-27 average 97 points), a gap which corresponds to more than 2 years of schooling.

Figure 3 - Percentage of teachers who reported that they `frequently´ or `always´ let students use ICT for projects or class work, 2018

Source: OECD, PISA 2018. Note: The EU average does not include ES. The isolation index of disadvantaged students from high-achieving students measures whether socio-economically disadvantaged students are concentrated in schools distinct from those that enrol high-achieving students. The index is related to the likelihood that a representative disadvantaged student attends a school that also enrols high-achieving students. It ranges from 0 to 1, with 0 corresponding to no segregation and 1 to full segregation.

Pupils’ well-being at school requires more attention. More than one in four students (28.3%) reported being bullied at least a few times a month (EU-27 22.7%), and low achievers are much more exposed to frequent bullying than high achievers (39.8% v 18.6%). Furthermore, 31% of Slovak students do not feel part of a school community, which also affects their performance: on average they scored 21 points less in reading. Unfavourable school climate may also prevent development of children’s social and emotional competences at school (European Commission, 2019d). In Slovakia, only 9% of pupils from the bottom social quartile are academically resilient (EU-27 11%), i.e. they have scored in the top quarter of performance in reading. The low level of resilient students in Slovakia is likely to be linked to the high isolation index (see above), as disadvantaged students are less likely to overcome the odds against them and to perform well at school.

Systemic solutions are needed to address the increasing rate of early school leavers. Unlike the EU trend, Slovakia’s early leavers from education and training rate has strongly deteriorated to 8.3% in 2019 (EU-27 10.2%) from a low base of 4.9% in 2009 (EU-27 14.0%). Eastern Slovakia has the highest rate (13.8%) and the rate in towns and suburbs has doubled from 5.1% in 2009 to 11.7% in 2019 (EU-27 11.2%). According to the ‘assessment of the implementation of the 2011 Council Recommendation on policies to reduce early school leaving’, while ESL is addressed in policies at national level and with ad hoc actions, there is a stark gap between policy and implementation (European Commission, 2019c). The ‘OECD Skills Strategy: Slovak Republic’ of January 2020 suggests that causes need to be analysed, and the ‘Resort Information System’ should be redesigned to be a fully-fledged early warning system (OECD, 2020a).

Slovakia plans to develop an inclusive education strategy. The proportion of pupils with special educational needs is among the highest in Europe, at almost 20% of primary school pupils. Some 5.9% of these pupils are educated in special classes or special schools (EU 1.6%). In several districts in eastern Slovakia, which have a large share of Roma, the proportion of primary school pupils in special schools for children with intellectual disabilities exceeds 10% (Hall, R et al., 2020). Systemic measures to prevent disproportionate placing of Roma children in special schools, Roma-only schools or Roma-only classes are lacking. The 2020 national reform programme aims to develop an inclusive education strategy (MoF, 2020b). A European Commission infringement procedure against Slovakia on the segregation of Roma children in education is ongoing. In 2020, Slovakia received a country-specific recommendation from the Council of the EU to ‘ensure equal access to quality education’ (Council of the European Union, 2020)10.

The attractiveness of the teaching profession remains limited, and teacher training lacks quality. Following salary increases in 2018-2020, the Ministry of Education estimates that teachers in public institutions will earn 73% of the average salary of other full-time employees with tertiary education. This is still far below the 2019 EU-23 average for teachers (OECD, 2020d). Low pay is the key factor discouraging potential candidates from entering the teaching profession, which is perceived as not sufficiently valued in society (Perignáthová M., 2019) Teachers’ enthusiasm in teaching is the second lowest in the EU, affecting students’ learning outcomes (OECD, 2019b Vol. III). According to the January 2020 ‘OECD Skills Strategy: Slovak Republic’, the teaching workforce needs to be strengthened, including by modernising initial teacher education programmes, strengthening continuing professional development and enhancing teacher career advancement (OECD, 2020a). The higher education reform has not yet brought any change to initial teacher education.

6. Modernising vocational education and training

Slovakia aims to improve employees’ adaptability to new labour market requirements. In 2019, the ESF project ‘Sector-driven innovations for an efficient labour market in the Slovak Republic’ was launched, focusing on both initial and continuing vocational education and training. In addition to supporting employees, it aims to contribute to the identification of skill needs by monitoring the demand of enterprises for skilled labour. With a budget of approximately EUR 20 million, project activities cover i) helping Sectoral Councils update job profiles and occupational standards included in the National System of Occupation, ii) creating a sector-driven lifelong learning system focusing on VET for both young people and adults and iii) providing comprehensive sources of information regarding skill needs (Cedefop ReferNet, 2020). A new upper secondary programme ‘Intelligent and digital systems’ was launched during 2019/2020. Graduates will be able to offer services related to internet of things and in support of smart factories, smart homes and smart cities (Vantuch, J.; Jelínková, D., 2019).

In 2018, total enrolment in upper secondary VET remained stable at 67.8%, well above the EU-27 average of 47.8% (UOE, 2018). Students enrolled in VET had some exposure to work-based learning (12% in 2017 compared to 11% in 2016). Most educational programmes provide some practical elements in the curriculum (UOE, 2017). In 2019, the employment rate of recent VET graduates at 84.6% continued to be well above the EU-27 average of 79.1% (LFS, 2019).

Due to COVID-19, the school calendar for VET has been extended. Also, flexibility has been allowed regarding practical experience in the workplace, and work-based learning modules will be exceptionally integrated with a project module so that the work environment-related objectives can be addressed. During practical exams, the evaluation of practical experience uses different instruments flexibly to show that the students have reached the objectives included in the evaluation criteria. The proposed flexibility enables regional educational authorities and teachers to find the most appropriate means for each case and situation. Entrance exams to access intermediate or higher vocational training for those who do not have the academic requirements were postponed until the first half of July and later.

7. Modernising higher education

Slovakia has reached the EU benchmark on tertiary attainment, but disparities are widening. Following years of steady growth, in 2019 Slovakia’s tertiary educational attainment rate reached 40.1%, in line with the EU-27 average (40.3%). However, the gender gap in favour of women has quadrupled over the past decade from 4.3 pps in 2009 to 16.1 pps in 2019 (EU-27 10.5 pps). The attainment rate for Slovak men thus remains below the EU-27 average (32.2% v 35.1%) (Figure 4). The attainment gap between individuals living in rural areas and cities has also widened from 18.2 pps in 2009 to 35.5 pps (EU-27 22.1 pps).

Figure 4 - Tertiary attainment rate (30-34) by gender, 2009 - 2019

Source: Eurostat, LFS, [edat_lfse_03].

The employment rate of recent tertiary graduates has increased, while the proportion of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) graduates remains unchanged. In 2019, the employment rate of recent tertiary graduates (aged 20-34) reached 83.4%, reducing the gap to both the EU average (85.0%) and the higher employment rate for upper secondary VET graduates (84.6%)11. The proportion of STEM graduates remains limited at 22.6% in 2018 (EU-27 25.4%), essentially unchanged since 2013. The proportion of women among graduates in natural sciences, mathematics and statistics (65%) is one of the highest in the EU; however, it is among the lowest in ICT12, at 15%. The 2020 national reform programme aims to increase the number of professionally-oriented bachelor programmes, including with ESF support, which should improve the overall employability of graduates. During the COVID-19 lockdown, higher education institutions (HEIs) switched to digital learning, but its effectiveness is not yet known.

Slovakia continues its reform measures to boost the quality of higher education. Slovak HEIs rank low internationally (Times Higher Education, 2020). Weaknesses result from factors such as fragmentation, low teaching quality, and limited internationalisation and job market orientation (European Commission, 2019b). Based on the legal framework adopted in 201813, Slovakia is establishing a new system of accreditation and aims to increase the importance of quality assurance. The new Slovak Accreditation Agency for Higher Education, which is operational since January 2020, is developing internal quality assurance system standards, study programme standards for accreditation, and standards for awarding the degrees of ‘docent’ and ‘professor’. The Student Council for Higher Education presented four pillars to improve higher education: social support, education, infrastructure, and science and research14. The Council advocates bringing quality assurance into line with Standards and Guidelines for Quality Assurance in the European Higher Education Area.

8. Promoting adult learning

A comparatively small share of adults (8.6%) has not acquired at least an upper secondary qualification, compared to an EU-27 average of 21.6% (LFS, 2019). The likelihood that adults in Slovakia will frequently update their knowledge and skills through adult learning is low: only 3.6% of adults aged 25-64 have had a recent learning experience in the past 4 weeks (EU-27 10.8%) (LFS, 2019). Slovakia has launched upskilling initiatives, particularly in validation. The objective of the ESF project ‘System of verifying qualifications’ (2019) is to set up a comprehensive system by establishing structures and mandatory procedures for lifelong learning, with an emphasis on the validation and recognition of qualifications, and piloting the validation system for non-formal and informal learning of approximately 300 qualifications, including validation of partial qualifications. This 4-year project also aims to complement the existing qualification standards of the National System of Qualifications by introducing assessment procedures. It is expected that these qualifications will be recognised by the Ministry of Education, certifying professional competences in line with Lifelong Learning Act (568/2009) (Cedefop ReferNet, 2020).

9. References

Bednárik, M. et al. (2020), Ako v čase krízy zabezpečiť prístup k vzdelávaniu pre všetky deti. IVP, Comment 01/2020, available at

Cedefop ReferNet Slovakia (2019), National programme for the development of education.

Cedefop ReferNet (2020), Slovakia: 2020 update of VET policy developments in the deliverables agreed in the 2015 Riga conclusions. Unpublished.

Comi, Simona Lorena et al. (2016), Is it the way they use it? Teachers, ICT and student achievement. In: Economics of Education Review (56) 2017, 24-39.

Conrads, J., Rasmussen, M., Winters, N., Geniet, A., Langer, L., (2017), Digital Education Policies in Europe and Beyond: Key Design Principles for More Effective Policies. Redecker, C., P. Kampylis, M. Bacigalupo, Y. Punie (ed.), EUR 29000 EN, Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg, 2017, ISBN 978-92-79-77246-7, doi:10.2760/462941 , JRC109311.

European Commission (2017), Digital technologies and learning outcomes of students from low socio-economic background: An Analysis of PISA 2015. A JRC Science for Policy Report.

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European Commission (2019c), Assessment of the implementation of the 2011 Council recommendation on policies to reduce early school leaving,

European Commission (2019d), PISA 2018 and the EU. Striving for fairness through education.

European Commission (2020a) Country report Slovakia 2020, available at

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European Commission/EACEA/Eurydice (2019b), Key Data on Early Childhood Education and Care in Europe – 2019 Edition. Eurydice Report. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union. DOI 10.2797/894279

Frazer, H., Guio, A.-C. and Marlier, E. (eds.) (2020), ‘Feasibility Study for a Child Guarantee: Final Report’, Feasibility Study for a Child Guarantee (FSCG), Brussels: European Commission.

Government of the Slovak Republic (2019), Stratégia digitálnej transformácie Slovenska 2030. [Strategy of digital transformation of Slovakia 2030].

Habodászová, Ľ., (2019) Monitorujeme monitor, [Monitoring monitor]. Financial Policy Institute,

Hall. R. et al. (2020), Odporúčania pre skvalitnenie školstva na Slovensku.To dá rozum. Návrh odporúčaní k verejnej diskusii 6.3.2020. Bratislava, MESA10 2020. Available at

Kučera, P. and Jakab. F., (2019), Správa o výsledkoch IT Fitness Testu 2019. Bratislava; Košice: TUKE; NÚCEM; ITAS.

Ministry of Education (2018a) Národný program rozvoja výchovy a vzdelávania (NPRVV, 2018-27),

Ministry of Education (2018b) Implementačný plán Národného programu rozvoja výchovy a vzdelávania (2018-2019) (Implementation plan, in Slovak,

Ministry of Finance (2019), Revízia výdavkov na skupiny ohrozené chudobou a sociálnym vylúčením.Ministry of Finance, Value for Money Unit (2020a) Revízia výdavkov na skupiny ohrozené chudobou alebo sociálnym vylúčením. Záverečná správa., Data (Graphs and tables) at .

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Annex I: Key indicators sources

Indicator Eurostat online data code
Early leavers from education and training edat_lfse_14 + edat_lfse_02
Tertiary educational attainment edat_lfse_03 + edat_lfs_9912
Early childhood education educ_uoe_enra10
Underachievement in reading, maths and science OECD (PISA)
Employment rate of recent graduates edat_lfse_24
Adult participation in learning trng_lfse_03
Public expenditure on education as a percentage of GDP gov_10a_exp
Expenditure on public and private institutions per student educ_uoe_fini04
Learning mobility:
- Degree-mobile graduates
- Credit-mobile graduates
DG EAC computation based on Eurostat / UIS / OECD data

Annex II: Structure of the education system

Source: European Commission/EACEA/Eurydice, 2020. The Structure of the European Education Systems 2019/2020: Schematic Diagrams. Eurydice Facts and Figures. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.

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Sylwia SITKA