European Education Area Progress Report 2020

Education and Training Monitor 2020


1. Key indicators

Figure 1 – Key indicators overview
Portugal EU-27
2009 2019 2009 2019
Education and training 2020 benchmarks
Early leavers from education and training (age 18-24) 30.9% 10.6%b 14.0% 10.2%
Tertiary educational attainment (age 30-34) 21.3% 36.2%b 31.1% 40.3%
Early childhood education
(from age 4 to starting age of compulsory primary education)
90.1% 93.7%18 90.3% 94.8%18
Proportion of 15 year-olds underachieving in: Reading 17.6% 20.2%18 19.3% 22.5%18
Maths 23.8% 23.3%18 22.2% 22.9%18
Science 16.5% 19.6%18 17.8% 22.3%18
Employment rate of recent graduates by educational attainment (age 20-34 having left education 1-3 years before reference year) ISCED 3-8 (total) 82.4% 80.3%b 78.0% 80.9%
Adult participation in learning (age 25-64) ISCED 0-8 (total) 6.4% 10.5%b 7.9% 10.8%b
Learning mobility Degree mobile graduates (ISCED 5-8) : 4.2%18 : 4.3%18
Credit mobile graduates (ISCED 5-8) : 7.0%18 : 9.1%18
Other contextual indicators
Education investment Public expenditure on education as a percentage of GDP 6.5% 4.5%e, 18 5.1% 4.6%18
Expenditure on public and private institutions per student in € PPS ISCED 1-2 €5 23912 €5 59717 €6 072d, 12 €6 240d, 16
ISCED 3-4 €6 907d, 12 €7 01617 :12 €7 757d, 16
ISCED 5-8 €7 403d, 12 €8 20917 €9 679d, 12 €9 977d, 16
Early leavers from education and training (age 18-24) Native-born 31.0% 10.3%b 12.6% 8.9%
Foreign-born 29.6% 14.4%b 29.3% 22.2%
Tertiary educational attainment (age 30-34) Native-born 21.1% 36.2%b 32.0% 41.3%
Foreign-born 22.6% 36.5%b 25.1% 35.3%
Employment rate of recent graduates by educational attainment (age 20-34 having left education 1-3 years before reference year) ISCED 3-4 79.7% 74.4%b 72.2% 75.9%
ISCED 5-8 84.0% 85.3%b 83.7% 85.0%

Source: Eurostat; OECD (PISA); Learning mobility figures are calculated by DG EAC, based on UOE 2018 data. Further information can be found in Annex I and in Volume 1 (
Notes: The 2018 EU average on PISA reading performance does not include ES; b = break in time series; d = definition differs; u = low reliability; : = not available; 12 = 2012, 16 = 2016, 17 = 2017, 18 = 2018.

Figure 2 - Position in relation to strongest and weakest performers

Source: DG EAC, based on data from Eurostat (LFS 2019, UOE 2018) and OECD (PISA 2018).

2. Highlights

  • The digital skills of the population are improving, but remain below the EU average. Teachers need further training in digital competences and schools require better infrastructure and digital equipment.
  • The proportion of early leavers from education and training remains higher in the island autonomous regions than on the mainland. The pandemic crisis revealed a socio-economic divide in students’ access to digital technology. The teacher workforce is ageing.
  • There are plans to increase the provision of accommodation at affordable prices for tertiary students. The attractiveness of technical tertiary studies is growing.
  • New initiatives are fostering enrolment in vocational education and training (VET). Slow progress of the participation rate in adult learning.

3. A focus on digital education

The population’s digital skills remain low but are improving. According to the European Commission’s Digital Economy and Society Index (DESI) 2020, Portugal ranks 20 of 27 Member States in human capital, significantly below the EU average. In 2019, 48% of the population lacked basic digital skills and around 26% had no digital skills at all (European Commission, 2020a). While increasing, Portugal’s share of information and communication technologies (ICT) specialists in total employment in the EU-27 continues to be one of the smallest (2.8% v 3.8% in 2019), and its share of ICT tertiary graduates in the total graduate pool is similarly low (2.2% v 3.8% in 2018). An Observatory for Digital Competences1 monitors the national digital, information society and media literacy strategy (the InCoDE 2030 initiative), which includes objectives for digital education. InCoDe 2030 sets out several indicators and mid-term goals (years 2020, 2025, 2030) grouped into four main categories2: access, human capital, use and investment. None of the 2020 human capital targets have been achieved so far3.

The national education curriculum covers digital competences at all education levels. Introduced in 2018/2019 in the first years of each school cycle, digital competences have since then been gradually extended to all other grades (European Commission/EACEA/Eurydice, 2019). The ‘student profile at the end of compulsory schooling’4 includes competences related to ICT and digital literacy. Digital competences cover four domains: digital citizenship, search and analysis, communication and collaboration and creativity and innovation. Digital competences are cross-curricular in lower primary education (grades 1-4), while in upper primary and lower secondary education (grades 5-9) they form a compulsory separate subject. In upper secondary (grades 10-12), ICT subjects are optional separate courses5. The Ministry of Education provides guidelines for digital content in the curriculum specific to each education level (Ministry of Education, 2019); as well as digital resources and teacher training. Within the Programme of Curricular Autonomy and Flexibility6, schools can use the guidelines to decide how to integrate digital competences into their programmes.

Teachers require further training to improve their digital competences. Primary and lower secondary school teachers’ level of confidence in their own digital competences is below the EU average (European Commission/EACEA/Eurydice, 2019; CNEDU, 2019). The Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS) 2018 (OECD, 2019a) shows that, on average, 40% of teachers feel well or very well prepared on the use of ICT for teaching, but 12% report a high need for professional development in this area (EU-22 averages 42% and 18% respectively). The proportion of teachers trained in the use of ICT remained broadly stable compared to TALIS 2013 (47% v 49%) and is higher among novice teachers (those having graduated in the last five years) at 72%. The share of teachers who have been trained in the pedagogical use of ICT and on learning applications is well below the EU average (European Commission/EACEA/Eurydice, 2019). Portugal has adopted the European self-assessment tool (TET-SAT7) to help teachers evaluate their level of digital competence and thereby define their development needs (European Commission/EACEA/Eurydice, 2019a). A set of short training actions and workshops have been developed (Ministry of Education, 2019) and massive open online courses (MOOCs) on digital-literacy-related topics are available.

The use of digital means for teaching remains limited. TALIS 2018 (OECD, 2019a) shows a higher proportion of teachers letting students use ICT for project or class work (57%) than in 2013 (34%). The share of students who use a computer at school for learning is below the EU average for lower secondary education (36% v 52%) and upper secondary education (43% v 59%) (European Commission, 2019). According to the International Computer and Information Literacy Study (ICILS), only 20% of students surveyed were assessed as independent users of a computer, while the vast majority needed direct instructions to complete basic tasks (Fraillon et al., 2019). The assessment of students’ digital competences is made by taking into account the learning outcomes stated in the national curricula. Portugal does not use digital technologies in national tests (European Commission/EACEA/Eurydice, 2019).

Schools require further investment in digital equipment. In public schools located on the mainland (excluding Madeira and Azores) there are on average 5.6 students per computer in primary education, 4.3 in lower secondary education and 4.1 in upper secondary education8. In private schools, the proportion is lower in primary and upper secondary, but higher in lower secondary. In public schools, the average number of students per computer has increased in the past 3 years. There are 28% fewer computers in schools and the percentage of old computers (more than 3 years) increased from 64.4% to 85% during the same period (ANPRI, 2018; CNEDU, 2019). TALIS 2018 (OECD, 2019a) shows that 37% of school principals report insufficient internet access. Constraints in public finances left families alone to invest in digital equipment and training, amplifying equity issues. The Government have prioritised during the COVID-19 pandemic of providing schools with digital devices, focusing mainly on socio-economic disadvantaged students and financially supported with EU funds.

Box 1: A national contest for schools on programming and robotic education plans

The National Network of Programming and Robotics Clubs (CPR) was launched in 2014/2015 by the Ministry of Education. Currently, 386 school clubs are registered all over the country involving students from all education levels.

As of 2014/2015, the Ministry launched an annual competition targeting all independent and clustered schools, public or private, from mainland Portugal, with a CPR in operation. In the competition’s first phase, the education establishments present a project and an annual activity plan for the CPR. At a later stage, selected CPRs participate in a regional event, through an exhibition and a public presentation and the best make a presentation at a national event. Prizes are awarded to the three best CPR projects at national level. For 2019/2020, three main categories were chosen: robotic vehicles, smart objects and environments, and other free topics.

More information available at:;

4. Investing in education and training

The education budget is close to the EU average: spending on salaries is high and low on gross capital formation9. In 2018, Portugal spent 4.5% of GDP on education and this represented 10.5% of total public expenditure, close to the EU averages (4.6% and 9.9% respectively). Public spending on education increased by 1.3% between 2017 and 2018 in real terms. Spending on secondary education represented 1.8% of GDP, 1.5% of GDP went on pre-primary and primary and 0.6% on tertiary education. 72% of spending went on compensation of employees, well above the EU average of 65%, while the 3% spending on gross capital formation is low (EU-27 7%). Education spending is mainly incurred by central government (3.8% GDP) at all education levels and to a lesser extent by local governments (0.7% GDP). Portugal is one of the EU countries with the highest shares of private spending (16% of total), most of it being household expenditure (15%)10.

Spending on education has decreased in the last decade. Over 2010-2018, there was a decrease in general government expenditure on education (in deflated values) of 24% (EUR 3 billion less). In tertiary education, real expenditure grew by 5% (EUR 70 million more)11. During the same period, EU-27 average spending in education increased by 4% (2% in tertiary education). The major real expenditure reductions between 2010 and 2018 were in gross capital formation (-79%) and compensation of employees (-17%).

A significant investment in digital training is planned. The government will invest EUR 23 million by 2021 in the digital training and qualification of the population. The European Commission’s proposal for the European Council 2020 country-specific recommendation to Portugal includes ‘support the use of digital technologies to ensure equal access to quality education and training and to boost firms’ competitiveness’ (European Commission, 2020b).


Figure 3 - Percentage of teachers who reported that they `frequently´ or `always´ let students use ICT for projects or class work, 2018

Source: DG EAC, from Eurostat's general government finance statistics (2018). Online data code: [gov_10a_exp].

5. Modernising early childhood and school education

The participation rate in early childhood education (ECE) slightly decreased. In 2018, the proportion of pupils from age 4 until the age of compulsory primary education (6) participating in ECE decreased by 0.5 pps (from 94.3% in 2017 to 93.7%), slightly below the EU benchmark of 95%12. The participation rate in formal childcare of children under 3 was 50.2%, above the EU average (34.7%)13. Regional differences in ECE participation persist, ranging from 97.8% in the autonomous island regions of Madeira and the Azores to 87.4% in the metropolitan area of Lisbon14. There is a persistent lack of places in public pre-primary schools, particularly in large metropolitan areas. National data indicate that the average occupation rate for pre-primary schools is 85.6%, higher in the metropolitan areas of Lisbon (90.4%) and Porto (92.4%). 47% of children attend private kindergartens (above the EU average of 23%), ranging from 56% in the metropolitan area of Lisbon to 37% in the Azores15. In 2019, pre-primary education institutions made 1 400 more public places available for children aged between 3 and 5 (European Commission, 2020c). In 2020/2021, 88 new classrooms will be opened in the pre-primary education public school network, mainly in the Lisbon and Oporto metropolitan areas, giving rise to a further 2.200 places. The average number of hours per week that Portuguese children spend in ECE is 39.1, among the highest of EU countries (CNEDU, 2019).

Basic skills levels are around the EU average. The OECD Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2018 survey shows that Portugal is one of the few countries with a positive trend in all three tested subjects (reading, mathematics and science) over the 2009-2018 period (OECD, 2019b). Compared to 2015, only the average score in science decreased. Girls are significantly better in reading, while boys perform better in mathematics. The rate of underachievement in all three tested subjects remained stable over the 2009-2018 period, and is close to the EU average (European Commission, 2020d) but still far above the 15% ET2020 benchmark. The proportion of top performers in reading and mathematics was unchanged between 2015 and 2018, but decreased in science.

Students’ background has a strong influence on educational outcomes. PISA 2018 shows that socio-economic background is a strong predictor of student performance, even if its impact was less than the EU average, (OECD, 2019c). The gap between advantaged and disadvantaged students in reading corresponds to over two years of schooling (95 score points). The mean score in reading of students with a migrant background is below that for native pupils (463 v 495 score points). This gap is particularly large for those born abroad and much narrower for pupils born in Portugal from a migrant background (483 points). Moreover, disadvantaged pupils are significantly less likely to complete tertiary education (OECD, 2019d).

The gender gap in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) careers is high. Among high-performing students in mathematics or science, about half of male students expect to work as an engineer or science professional, while only about one in seven females expects to do so. About 6% of boys, but only 1% of girls, expect to work in ICT-related professions (OECD, 2019d).

There is comparatively good student well-being. In Portugal, few students (14%) reported being bullied at least a few times a month, the second lowest in the EU (22%). A small proportion of students in Portugal reported always feeling sad, compared to other PISA-participating countries and economies (OECD, 2019e).

High dropout and early school leaving rates persist in the Azores and Madeira. The last available data from 2017 indicate dropout rates of 26.9% in the Azores and 23.2% in Madeira, above that in mainland Portugal (13.3%)16. Nevertheless, these figures are much better than in 2010 (27.5% in mainland Portugal, 44.8% in the Azores and 36.6% in Madeira). Following the positive trend in the last 10 years, the rate of early leavers from education and training keeps decreasing and stood at 10.6% in 2019, close to the EU average of 10.2% and lower than in 2018 (11.8%)17. All regions have reduced their rates, but Azores still have the highest proportion (27%), although less than in 2018 (28.3%)18.

Figure 4 - Reading performance by socio-economic status (ESCS), PISA 2018

Source: (OECD, 2019c), PISA 2018.

Education moved quickly to distance learning in response to the pandemic crisis. Due to the COVID-19 outbreak, schools and universities were closed down on 16 March 2020 and in-person education was replaced by distance learning. This included broadcast TV programmes #EstudoEmCasa19 (study at home) for all education levels, also available via YouTube. The Directorate-General for Education and the National Agency for Qualifications and Professional Education (ANQEP) created a portal named Apoio às Escolas20 (School Support), which provides distance learning resources for schools. A number of initiatives from different stakeholders were adopted to help teachers become more proficient in online and distance learning21. In higher education, various tools were used, notably the Colibri collaboration platform22 developed by the National Scientific Computation Unit of the Foundation for Science and Technology (FCCN-FCT). The school year for all grades, from pre-schooling to upper secondary education, was extended until 26 June. Kindergartens (ages 0-2) opened on 18 May and pre-schools (ages 3-5) on 1 June. Upper secondary students returned to class in mid-May but only for subjects covered by the national examination; the remaining subjects continued to be taught through distance learning. Primary and lower secondary students did not return to class. The national end-of-school exams (‘exames finais nacionais’), which give access to higher education studies, were postponed by around one month for the first and second round (July and September).

The school closures posed significant challenges to socio-economically disadvantaged students. A survey by the National Statistics Institute in November 2019 reported that 5% of households with children up to the age of 15 do not have access to internet23. It is estimated that 50 000 and 70 000 students (around 6% of total) do not have computers at home24. Families with lower incomes have fewer available computers than those with higher incomes (41% v 96% of households), below the EU-27 averages (67% and 97% respectively)25. According to Fraillon et al. (2019) 58% of students from families with lower incomes have less than two computers to share at home.

6. Modernising vocational education and training

VET enrolment remains below the EU average. Total enrolment in upper secondary VET saw a slight decline in 2018, representing only 39.7% of all students (EU average 48.4%). The employment rate among recent VET graduates has declined again to 76.0% in 2019 from 77.4% in 2018 (EU average 79.1%).

Portugal intends to increase the attractiveness of apprenticeships. The aim is to promote greater involvement of companies in training and boost the apprentices’ employment rate up to at least 80%. To this end, in 2019 the Institute of Employment and Vocational Training (IEFP) launched a strategy and funded a pilot project called ‘Apprenticeship gives employment’. Training institutions carry out the project in the tourism sector, in cooperation with business associations, which are responsible for mobilising companies to provide apprenticeship placements and ensure job offers. After tourism, other sectors will follow (automotive, construction, etc.).

There is a new access route to higher education, available as from this year, to students who complete professional education. In spite of the COVID-19 pandemic, those students will take regional exams to access tertiary studies. VET schools were able to replace ‘practical training’ by ‘simulated practices’, taken in distance learning mode.

The training of VET teachers and trainers remains a priority. A process for recognition, validation and certification of the competences of trainers (RVCC-For), launched in 2019, targets professionals with proven experience as trainers or in other education and training activities, who wish to certify their pedagogical competences acquired through formal or informal ways.

Portugal aims to qualify people and organisations to face the challenges of the fourth industrial revolution, through the programme Capacitar i4.0, linked to the Industry 4.0 strategy and INCoDe.2030.

Box 2: Increasing labour market relevance and employability through professional courses

Professional courses (‘Cursos Profissionais’) is a project supported by the European Social Fund for the 2014-2020 period. It aims to improve the labour market relevance of education and training, facilitate the transition from education to work and strengthen the quality of VET. It includes mechanisms for skills anticipation, curricula adaptation and the creation and development of work-based learning systems, including dual education and apprenticeship systems. These constitute one of the dual secondary education and training pathways, where training is carried out simultaneously in a school and work context, in conjunction with local employers, thus giving priority to educational/training offers that correspond to local and regional needs.

Courses take place in three-year cycles and the curriculum is organised in modules and/or units of short-duration training (UFCD), allowing greater flexibility and adaptability to students’ learning preferences. At the end of the training course, students must complete a professional aptitude test, consisting of a presentation, before a jury of external stakeholders (representatives from business associations and trade unions, among others), of a project developed in a work context; and also demonstrating the professional knowledge and skills acquired throughout the training.

So far, at the Ruiz Costa Professional School, 900 students have been trained mainly in 3D digital design; electronics, automation and computers; multimedia and technical management and programming computer systems. Graduation rates for the 3-year cycle were 80-90% and the rate of employability and/or continuation of studies measured 6 months after completion of the course was 79%. This data is monitored under EQAVET, the quality system by which the school is certified. Up to March 2020, this school had already approved financing of around EUR 6.3 million from the European Social Fund.

7. Modernising higher education

Higher education enrolment and tertiary attainment keeps increasing. In 2019, tertiary education attainment (aged 30-34) reached 36.2%, higher than in 2018 (33.5%), but still below the national benchmark (40%) and the EU-27 average (40.3%). Regional differences persist, ranging from 29.3% to 40.3%26. In 2018, new entrants in bachelor’s degree studies increased by 8%, but decreased 21% in master studies27. CNEDU (2019) reports an 8% increase in 2017/2018 of students enrolled for the first time compared to 2016/2017. Only 30% of students who enter a bachelor programme graduate within 3 years (the expected duration of the programme for most fields) (European Commission, 2020c). The measures taken to ease and widen enrolment to higher education (reducing fees and increasing the number of available university places, scholarships and student housing facilities) seem not to show any major impact yet.

Technical studies are increasingly attracting tertiary students. In 2017/2018, around 35% of students were enrolled in polytechnic institutes (universities of applied sciences) – a growing trend in the last few academic years. Nearly 7 000 students were enrolled in short-term technical and professional training courses (63% men) (CNEDU, 2019). In 2018-2019, most of the increase in overall enrolment happened in these short-term technical courses (DGES, 2019).

There are increasing numbers of students in ICT and science-related studies, yet low numbers of graduates. Between 2008/2009 and 2017/2018, around 1 000 more students were enrolled annually in the first year of science, mathematics and statistics, and ICT studies. In 2018, 2.6% of total students enrolled in higher education were studying ICT and 6% science, mathematics and statistics - a slightly higher share in ICT than in 2017 (2.4%), but far from the EU-27 averages (4.9% and 7.1% respectively in 2018). The proportion of ICT graduates in the total graduate pool remains one of the lowest of all fields of education (2.2% in 2017/2018) (CNEDU, 2019), and lower than the EU average (3.6%) (European Commission, 2020a).

There is a shortage of student accommodation at affordable prices. Expensive tuition fees and high rents, especially in big cities, represent some of the main barriers to study, particularly for those from low-income households, and force many university students to abandon their studies. Under Law 36/201828, the government adopted an initiative for the reassignment and construction of residences for public higher education students. In 2019, the National Plan for Accommodation in Higher Education was launched (PNAES) (Portuguese Government, 2019) aiming to double in four years the current offer by creating 12 000 more housing facilities at regulated prices. By 2030, they expect to offer a total of 30 000 student accommodation places. In 2019, 600 more beds were available thanks to cooperation with youth hostels, military facilities and churches. Another 2 500 new beds are planned by 2020 and 2 700 by 2021. The majority of them are in the Lisbon and Porto areas.

8. Promoting adult learning

Adult participation in lifelong learning keeps growing slowly. In 2019, the participation rate of adults in education and training (10.5%) remained barely unchanged in comparison with 2018 (10.3%). The share of unemployed (aged 25-64) participating in learning decreased from 13.2% to 12.9%.

Participation in the flagship programme Qualifica, designed to tackle the adult population’s low skills level, continues to grow. Over 444 000 adults were involved by December 2019 (still far from the 2020 target of 600 000). However, detailed data regarding the training provision and employability results are still lacking, which makes it hard to assess the programme’s effectiveness.

Vulnerable groups, such as inmates and the homeless, are being catered for in upskilling and reskilling plans. There will be a new strategic action plan for the homeless that includes appropriate training programmes. A new social training project aims to provide inmates with digital skills to help their reintegration into the labour market.

Digital education opportunities in programmes directed at adult learners and adult educators are scarce and do not meet the clear needs of the adult population. There is also a need to improve the digital education qualifications of teachers and adult educators and raise awareness about the importance of digital education in adult learning programmes and activities.

9. References

ANPRI (2018) Carta aberta ao Ministro da Educação, Associação Nacional dos Professores de Informática [National Association of Information Technology Teachers],

Cedefop ReferNet Portugal (2019), VET for the homeless,

Cedefop ReferNet Portugal (2020), Digital training for inmates,

Cedefop ReferNet (2020), Portugal: 2020 update of VET policy developments in the deliverables agreed in the 2015 Riga conclusions, unpublished

Cedefop (forthcoming), Key competences in initial VET: digital, multilingual and literacy.

CNEDU (2019), Estado da Educação 2018, Lisbon: Conselho Nacional de Education [National Council for Education],

DGEEC (2019), Perfil do docente 2017/2018. Análise sectorial.$clientServletPath%7D/?newsId=148&fileName=DGEEC_2019_PerfilDocente1718.pdf

DGES (2019), Concurso Nacional de Acesso [General Access Regime] Portugal: Directorate-General for Higher Education (DGES),

European Commission/EACEA/Eurydice (2019), Digital Education at School in Europe. European Commission Report, Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.

European Commission (2019), 2nd Survey of Schools: ICT in Education. Portugal country report,

European Commission (2020a), Digital Economy and Society Index (DESI) 2020, Country Report Portugal,

European Commission (2020b), Recommendation for a Council Recommendation on the 2020 National Reform Programme of Portugal and delivering a Council opinion on the 2020 Stability Programme of Portugal. COM/2020/5252 final,

European Commission (2020c), European Semester: Country Report – Portugal,

European Commission (2020d), PISA 2018 and the EU. Striving for social fairness through education,

Ferreira, F. (forthcoming), Vocational education and training for the future of work: Portugal. Cedefop ReferNet thematic perspective series. work_Portugal_Cedefop_ReferNet.pdf

Fraillon, J., Ainley, J., Schulz, W., Friedman, T. & Duckworth, D. (2019), Preparing for Life in a Digital World. IEA International Computer and Information Literacy Study (ICILS) 2018: International Report,

Ministry of Education (2019). TIC e currículo,

OECD (2019a), TALIS 2018 Results (Volume I): Teachers and School Leaders as Lifelong Learners,

OECD (2019b), PISA 2018 Results (Volume I): What Students Know and Can Do, PISA,

OECD (2019c), Portugal: Country Profile, PISA 2018.

OECD (2019d), PISA 2018 Results (Volume II): Where All Students Can Succeed,

OECD (2019e), PISA 2018 Results (Volume III): What School Life Means for Students’ Lives,

Portuguese Government (2019). Plano nacional para o alojamento no ensino superior – Atualizado. Lisboa: Governo Português,

Annex I: Key indicators sources

Indicator Eurostat online data code
Early leavers from education and training edat_lfse_14 + edat_lfse_02
Tertiary educational attainment edat_lfse_03 + edat_lfs_9912
Early childhood education educ_uoe_enra10
Underachievement in reading, maths and science OECD (PISA)
Employment rate of recent graduates edat_lfse_24
Adult participation in learning trng_lfse_03
Public expenditure on education as a percentage of GDP gov_10a_exp
Expenditure on public and private institutions per student educ_uoe_fini04
Learning mobility:
- Degree-mobile graduates
- Credit-mobile graduates
DG EAC computation based on Eurostat / UIS / OECD data

Annex II: Structure of the education system

Source: European Commission/EACEA/Eurydice, 2020. The Structure of the European Education Systems 2019/2020: Schematic Diagrams. Eurydice Facts and Figures. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.

Comments and questions on this report are welcome and can be sent by email to:







5 For instance, in the final year of secondary education (12th grade), there is an optional course on computer applications where students can learn basic notions of coding, algorithms and programming, as well as an introduction to multimedia technologies.

6 For reference see the OECD review (2018):

7 Tool developed as part of the Mentoring Technology Enhanced Pedagogy policy experiment project supported by the European Union through the Erasmus+ programme;


9 Gross capital formation comprises the acquisition less sales of fixed capital (e.g. buildings, vehicles, and machinery for example), inventories (stocks of raw materials, work in progress and finished goods) and other valuables items held as stores. See for additional information

10 Education at a Glance 2019 : OECD indicators

11 Eurostat: [gov_10a_exp].

12 Eurostat, LFS: [educ_uoe_enra10].

13 Eurostat, LFS: [ilc_caindformal].

14 Eurostat, LFS: [educ_uoe_enra17].

15 Source National Institute of Statistics (INE)

16 Source National Statistics Pordata

17 Eurostat, LFS: [edat_lfse_14].

18 Eurostat, LFS: [edat_lfse_16].



21 Among others: Escola de Professores (Teachers’ School) Escola Virtual (Virtual School) and Aula Digital (Digital Class).




25 Eurostat: [isoc_ci_cm_h].

26 Eurostat: [edat_lfse_12].

27 Eurostat: [educ_uoe_ent01].

28 Diario Da Republica: