European Education Area Progress Report 2020

Education and Training Monitor 2020


1. Key indicators

Figure 1 – Key indicators overview
Hungary EU-27
2009 2019 2009 2019
Education and training 2020 benchmarks
Early leavers from education and training (age 18-24) 11.5% 11.8% 14.0% 10.2%
Tertiary educational attainment (age 30-34) 24.0% 33.4% 31.1% 40.3%
Early childhood education
(from age 4 to starting age of compulsory primary education)
94.8% 95.7%18 90.3% 94.8%18
Proportion of 15 year-olds underachieving in: Reading 17.6% 25.3%18 19.3% 22.5%18
Maths 22.3% 25.6%18 22.2% 22.9%18
Science 14.1% 24.1%18 17.8% 22.3%18
Employment rate of recent graduates by educational attainment (age 20-34 having left education 1-3 years before reference year) ISCED 3-8 (total) 75.5% 85.6% 78.0% 80.9%
Adult participation in learning (age 25-64) ISCED 0-8 (total) 3.0% 5.8% 7.9% 10.8%b
Learning mobility Degree mobile graduates (ISCED 5-8) : 4.7%18 : 4.3%18
Credit mobile graduates (ISCED 5-8) : 3.7%18 : 9.1%18
Other contextual indicators
Education investment Public expenditure on education as a percentage of GDP 5.4% 5.1% 18 5.1% 4.6%18
Expenditure on public and private institutions per student in € PPS ISCED 1-2 €3 39712 €3 73617 €6 072d, 12 €6 240d, 16
ISCED 3-4 €3 31612 €6 36217 :d, 12 €7 757d, 16
ISCED 5-8 €6 83012 €8 56517 €9 679d, 12 €9 977d, 16
Early leavers from education and training (age 18-24) Native-born 11.4% 11.9%u 12.6% 8.9%
Foreign-born :u :u 29.3% 22.2%
Tertiary educational attainment (age 30-34) Native-born 23.6% 33.2% 32.0% 41.3%
Foreign-born 41.3% 39.5% 25.1% 35.3%
Employment rate of recent graduates by educational attainment (age 20-34 having left education 1-3 years before reference year) ISCED 3-4 66.4% 82.6% 72.2% 75.9%
ISCED 5-8 84.8% 89.5% 83.7% 85.0%

Sources: Eurostat; OECD (PISA); Learning mobility figures are calculated by DG EAC, based on UOE 2018 data. Further information can be found in Annex I and in Volume 1 ( Notes: The 2018 EU average on PISA reading performance does not include Spain; b= break in time series; d = definition differs, p = provisional, u = low reliability, : = not available, 12 = 2012, 16 = 2016, 17 = 2017, 18 = 2018.

Figure 2 - Position in relation to strongest and weakest performers

Source: DG EAC, based on data from Eurostat (LFS 2019, UOE 2018) and OECD (PISA 2018).

2. Highlights

  • Further support for digital education is needed to boost digital skills.
  • There is a continued high share of underachievers and early school leavers.
  • A new financing model is expected to help higher education institutions operate more flexibly.
  • The new VET strategy and law have introduced major changes but provide little room to develop basic skills.

3. A focus on digital education

Hungary needs to boost digital skills. The share of digitally supportive schools at all ISCED levels is lower than the European average (Deloitte et al., 2019). Such schools have strategies for digital teaching and learning, and strongly promote teachers’ professional development. The share of highly digitally equipped and connected schools at ISCED levels 1 to 3 is also lower than the EU average (Deloitte et al., 2019). 73% of people aged 16-19 estimate that they have at least basic digital skills, which is below the EU-27 average (82%) according to the 2019 Digital Economy and Society Index (DESI). The government launched the digital prosperity programme to boost the digital capacity of individuals and companies, one arm of which is the digital education strategy (2017-2020). Its aim is to prepare the education and training system to meet the needs of a digital society and economy in terms of infrastructure, technology, content, work organisation and human resources.

The switch to distance learning during the lockdown highlighted teachers’ uneven preparedness and pupils’ varying access to digital learning. Schools were closed from 16 March until the end of the school year, with classroom teaching provided on demand. The upper-secondary school leaving exams took place only in writing. Evidence from the yearly national competence tests suggests that around 20% of pupils had no or very limited access to digital education (Hermann, 2020), possibly exacerbating the learning deficit of disadvantaged learners. To support families during the lockdown period, municipalities and school district centres distributed daily free school meals for disadvantaged pupils and those attending classroom teaching.

A dedicated agency helps implement the digital education strategy. The Digital Pedagogical Methodology Centre (Digitális Pedagógiai Módszertani Központ; DPMK) was established in 2016 to develop a digital competence framework based on the EU framework and assessment tools for all types of educational institutions. The government adopted an outline of the digital competence framework in 2019 (Government, 2019a). DPMK promotes good practices through the Digital Thematic Week (see Box) and supports schools in implementing their digital development plans. DPMK also supports the spread of numerous initiatives of schools, NGOs and private companies in fields such as robotics, maker spaces, online content and resources. The agency organised over 30 webinars during the school closure to inform teachers about the use of available tools and digital pedagogy.

The new core curriculum can increase digital competence. It was published in January 2020 and will apply from September 2020. One of its novelties is the subject ‘digital culture’, which covers informatics, digital communication and information search. The ICT Association of Hungary welcomed the digital competence objectives defined in the core curriculum, while stressing that they could only be achieved if, for example, schools had sufficient resources to procure, maintain and replace their digital tools and teachers received continuing professional development in digital competences (IVSz, 2020). The Association also strongly recommends including the required level of digital competence within learning outcomes, e.g. in the upper-secondary school leaving exam.

Box 1: Making schools more digital: the Digital Thematic Week

The government’s Digital Thematic Week initiative started in 2016, with the participation of some 785 schools. About 5 400 teachers and 79 000 students participated in digital education projects during this week. The Week has been organised annually since its launch, attracting increasing numbers of participants. The 2020 Week was originally scheduled for March, but as digital education suddenly became the norm due to the school closures participation was extended to the end of May and reached over 700 schools.

The Digital Thematic Week is coordinated by DPMK to promote digital education at school, beyond the boundaries of IT classes. Participating teachers and students can develop their skills through diverse and creative school projects. School groups can participate in free programmes provided by the partner organisations. The programmes are published on the DPMK website, and the agency also helps schools and partners prepare their applications. Schools can either create their own project or take inspiration from 12 ready-made sample project kits and numerous pedagogical guides. The Digital Thematic Week teachers’ Facebook community provides a forum to exchange ideas and professional experiences.

4. Investing in education and training

Public expenditure is above the EU average. General government expenditure on education in 2018 surpassed the EU average, both as a proportion of GDP (5.1% v 4.6% EU-27) and as a proportion of total general government expenditure (11% v 9.9% EU-27). The 2017-2018 spending rise in real terms (4.2%) went mainly to higher education, while spending on primary and pre-primary education did not increase and, in secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education, spending dropped by 0.8%. According to the 2020 State Budget Act, expenditure on primary and general secondary education is nearly HUF 600 billion (~EUR 1 810 million), similar to the 2019 level. In 2018, some 800 school buildings were refurbished with EU funding, which represents around 10% of all schools.

The number of schools has not been aligned to the reduced school population, with risks for public spending efficiency. The year-on-year decrease in the school population was 0.8% in 2019/2020 (KSH, 2020a), while the decline between 1990 and 2016 was 10 times greater than the decrease in the number of primary schools. This reduces efficiency: the proportion of unused school capacity increased to 48% in secondary education in 2018/2019 (OH, 2019a) and is particularly large in vocational grammar schools (44%) and vocational training schools (65%). The pupil-teacher ratio was 10.2 in primary education in 2018, against an EU average of 13.61. Maintaining the large number of schools has effectively increased parental choice and the scope for segregating students by socio-economic status (Radó, 2018).

5. Modernising early childhood and school education

Action to improve access and quality of early childhood education may help reduce child development differences. 95.7% of children aged 4-6 participate in early childhood education, above the EU average (94.8%). In 2016, Roma participation was 91%, close to the national average and by far the highest among Member States in the region (FRA, 2016). As performance gaps appear at early ages, lowering the age of compulsory participation in kindergarten from age 5 to 3 from 2015/2016 has been a positive step that is likely to improve children’s later performance at school. In 2018, 16.5% of children under 3 attended childcare (EU average: 34.7%). All children below school age are eligible for early childhood education services and providers are expected to provide specialised support to disadvantaged children. Regional coverage of services remains unbalanced: in 2017 nearly 30% of municipalities had no pre-primary schools (Varga, 2019).

Parents’ freedom to request a delay for starting school has been reduced. An amendment to the Act on National Public Education in July 2019 changed the rule for enrolling children in primary school as of January 2020. Where previously kindergarten heads could allow a one-year extension of pre-school attendance instead of proceeding to primary school in case of immaturity, the new regulations make this possibility subject to an expert decision issued by the Education Authority and require parents to apply for a permit in January. The stated purpose of the amendment is to eliminate exceptions and misuses that are unfavourable to the child. The change met large-scale criticism from parents, psychologists, pre-school teachers, and professional organisations, who warn of a long-term negative impact on the educational outcomes of immature children. The Commissioner for Fundamental Rights requested postponing the amendment on the grounds of legal certainty and potential infringement of the rights of the child (Ombudsman, 2019).

Educational outcomes are below the EU average in the latest survey of the OECD Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA 2018). At the age of 15, mean levels of basic skills are significantly below the EU averages and have decreased since 2009, with the sharpest decline in science. The share of low achievers is well above the EU average in all three areas tested: 25.6% in mathematics, 25.3% in reading and 24.1% in science, compared to 22.4%, 21.7% and 21.6% respectively at EU level. The shares of underperformers in reading and science have increased significantly since 2009 (by 8 and 9 pps respectively). The share of top performers in each of these subjects is below the EU average and has declined.

Socio-economic background is a strong predictor of pupil performance and large differences between schools remain. In 2018, advantaged pupils scored on average 113 points higher than their disadvantaged peers in reading, the second widest gap in the EU, corresponding to around 3-4 years of schooling. Schools are characterised by the similar socio-economic background of their pupils, with concentrations of disadvantaged pupils in certain schools - the gap in pupils' performance between socio-economically advantaged and disadvantaged schools is the largest in the EU (169 points). Performance-based selection starting at the age of 10 leads to the separation of underachieving pupils from their high-achieving peers, which is likely to be a factor in the large share of low performers in Hungary (European Commission, 2019). For example, the difference in reading performance between pupils enrolled in general education and vocational programmes exceeds 100 points. Only 1.4% of disadvantaged students were admitted to higher education in 2017 (Varga, 2019). In its 2020 country-specific recommendation, the Council of the EU recommended that Hungary take measures to ensure access to quality education for all (Council of the European Union, 2020).

Figure 3 - Underachievement gap in reading by socio-economic status, in percentage points, 2018

Source: OECD 2019, PISA 2018. Note: The EU average does not include ES results.

In 2019, the early school leaving rate improved slightly but remained above the EU average. In 2019, the rate of early leavers from education and training decreased for the first time in 3 years (11.8% v an EU-27 average of 10.2%). The rate is higher in the least developed districts and among Roma (65.3%). Participation of 17 and 18 year-olds in secondary education dropped sharply between 2011 and 2016 (from 98% to 85%), after vocational secondary training was shortened to 3 years in 2010 and the age of compulsory education was lowered from 18 to 16 in 2012. The concentration of disadvantaged pupils in certain schools and school types – especially vocational training schools – makes it difficult to retain such pupils in school and to give them the individualised help they need to develop. Disadvantaged schools are most affected by teacher shortages, and they have no means to attract more experienced teachers and extra support staff. The distribution of pupils at risk of dropping out varies greatly by school type and region. In the three most affected counties, 13-15% of pupils are concerned2. For vocational training in these three counties, the rate is 20-24%. Early school leaving correlates strongly with local education outcomes, which are lowest in rural settlements (OH, 2019c), where the capacity to provide quality education is more limited and teacher shortages are more pressing. Hungary has the largest urban/rural gap in education outcomes, before accounting for socio-economic status, of all OECD countries (OECD, 2019b).

Equity challenges continue. In 2001-2016, the proportion of church schools in basic education increased from 5% to 15.8% and from 10.4% to 22.8% in upper-secondary education (Varga, 2019). Church schools are exempt from some legislative restrictions and do not participate in system-level desegregation measures, thereby limiting the measures’ impact. The proportion of basic schools with a Roma population of 50% or higher increased from 10% in 2008 to 15% in 2017, partly reflecting the demography of the locality in which the school is located. Since the compulsory school age was decreased from 18 to 16 years, the proportion of 17 year-olds who are not in employment, education or training has increased from 3% to 5-6% (Köllő-Sebők, 2019a) and reaches 40% among 17 year-old Roma boys (Köllő-Sebők, 2019b). This increase in inactivity among 17 year-olds is worrying, because their risk of long-term unemployment is very high.

In July 2020, a law was adopted to establish specific police forces to maintain order in educational institutions. The law also reduces the age of criminal prosecution to 12 years-old for acts against public officials and people in public service (teachers). Furthermore, it punishes any crime by a pupil by suspending their family allowance for 12 months. The government justified the proposal by referring to the growth of violent acts against teachers and fellow pupils. The Teachers’ Trade Union considers that the law only serves to intimidate pupils but contains no preventive measures (PSz, 2020); they question the use of chemical substances, sticks and handcuffs against minors within schools and that there is no mention of the relationship between the principal and the school guard. Instead they propose employing at least one full-time school psychologist per 200 pupils and substantially increasing the number of development and special education teachers, especially in disadvantaged regions. The Trade Union also argues for a review of child protection, increasing the number of professionals in this field and for enhanced cooperation of family protection officials and social workers with teachers.

The shortage of teachers is increasingly challenging. The teaching workforce is ageing. In 2017, 41% of teachers were over 50, while only 6% were under 30. Initial teacher education cannot meet the demand for teachers: the number of applicants has increased in recent years, but dropout rates are high and less than half of graduate teachers actually enter the profession3. The shortage is most significant in disadvantaged areas, for science subjects and foreign languages, and in vocational education and training. Low salaries are one factor – these are equivalent to only 61%-70% of the salaries of other tertiary graduates (OECD, 2019). In addition, the number of teaching hours remains high. As of August 2020, teachers receive a 10% salary supplement. The National Chamber of Teachers (NPK, 2019) called for bigger increases in the salary scale for the first 10 years of a teacher’s career, and to restore the ratio between the starting salary and the minimum wage to where it was in 20134.

A revised national core curriculum (Nemzeti Alaptanterv; NAT) was adopted in January 2020. Contrary to expectations, learning and teaching burdens have not been reduced. There is some decrease in the number of lessons in a few subjects, but the amount of content to be taught has not been adjusted. The structure of the NAT has also changed, with subjects being grouped into broader subject areas of education. The central framework curricula detailing the new NAT were published in February 2020 and will be applied from September 2020 in the first, fifth and ninth grades. Schools had until the end of April 2020 to adjust their local curricula to the framework curricula. Therefore, there was less than 6 months to develop the local school curricula and prepare teachers. This implementation period was not extended despite the exceptional circumstances linked to distant learning.

Box 2: Development of digital competences and ICT infrastructure in education

European Social Fund (ESF) project: HRDOP-3.2.4-16

Duration: 2017-2020

Budget: HUF 46.4 billion, EUR 136 million

This is the biggest component of a package of four large-scale investment projects realised in 2016-2020. Its aim is to equip all state schools in the less developed regions – representing 70% of the population – with Wi-Fi, to provide teachers with laptops and ICT training and to equip 800 schools with tablets. Some 45 000 teachers and 24 000 pupils benefit directly from the project.

Results so far include:

  • installation of Wi-Fi in 2 600 schools;
  • provision of laptops and training for 45 000 teachers;
  • provision of tablets for 800 schools (30 tablets per school; 24 000 tablets altogether).

Three further projects complement the package:

  • centralised development of digital education content and development of the National Education Portal ( displaying digital education content (HRDOP-3.2.2-15);
  • centralised development of digital pedagogical methodologies, assessment and evaluation (HRDOP-3.2.15-17) to define digital competence levels at different levels of education;
  • digital environment in public education (HRDOP-3.2.3-17), supporting the majority of state and non-state schools through 60 projects to purchase IT equipment, IT training and IT support.

Up to EUR 200 million has been invested, of which 85% is financed by the ESF.

6. Modernising vocational education and training

Participation in initial VET is increasing and VET graduates fare well on the labour market. The employment rate among recent VET graduates was 86.3% in 2019, exceeding the EU average (79.1%). This corresponds to the overall high share of employment among the population aged 25-55 (84.3%) (KSH, 2020b). In 2016, only 43% of vocational training school graduates worked in skilled labour; with the majority working in unskilled jobs (Köllő, 2017). A 2015 amendment of the VET law restructured the two tracks in VET. The higher track, which had been classified as general education because of its limited vocational content, was reclassified as VET. Vocational content was increased at the cost of general education and graduates of the new ‘vocational grammar school’ could obtain both a secondary school leaving examination certificate and an ISCED 3 level qualification.

A 2019 law on vocational education and training aims to attract more students to both vocational tracks. The law (Government, 2019b) introduced major changes to the vocational tracks, before the full roll-out of the previous reform introduced in 2016/2017. Vocational grammar schools – the path with a higher element of general education – were transformed into five-year ‘technical schools’ (technikum) and will lead to both general secondary education and vocational qualifications. However, there will be no possibility to transfer from these schools with a secondary school leaving certificate (matura) before the final exam in the fifth year. The name ‘vocational grammar school’ (szakgimnázium) refers to a five-grade secondary school providing training in arts, pedagogical assistance or culture. Vocational secondary schools – for less academically inclined pupils – will become three-year ‘vocational schools’ (szakképző iskola) and will no longer be combined with an additional two-year cycle leading to a matura. A novelty of both schools is the sectoral basic education in the first 1 or 2 years. The choice of the specific profession is thereby postponed to age 15-16, allowing a more informed career choice. The government allocated additional HUF 35 billion (~EUR 106 million) to increase teachers’ salaries in VET in 2020. As from September 2020, vocational teachers have become employees under the Labour Code and their salaries are no longer paid according to the unified pay scale and career model of teachers (Government, 2019b).

7. Modernising higher education

The growing demand for a highly skilled workforce is not met by a sufficient number of tertiary graduates. The employment rate of recent tertiary graduates in 2019 was 89.5%, well above the EU average of 85%, reflecting strong demand for highly skilled workers. However, against the background of demographic decline and high outward migration, current enrolment and completion trends make it hard to respond to this high demand, with only a 33.4% tertiary educational attainment rate among 30-34 year-olds in 2019 (EU-27: 40.3%). Admission conditions were further tightened in 2020. An advanced level matura exam result became the general entry condition. This resulted in a 20% decline in applications for 2020-2021 (Fig. 4). The dropout rate in higher education is around 30%.

Figure 4 - Number of applicants and admissions into higher education (2011- 2020) and 18 year-old population (2011 - 2024)

Source: Central Admission Database (; calculations based on the data of the Central Statistical Office (KSH;

The government has increased the student support budget of tertiary institutions. Tertiary institutions receive an institutional budget to pay various forms of student support. The value of normative student support, on whose basis this budget is calculated, increased in two steps, in September 2018 and in February 2020, resulting in a total increase of 40%. The amount of support for socially disadvantaged students in 2019 was EUR 191 for bachelor studies and EUR 291 for master’s programmes. From February 2020, this support increased by 30%.

A new financing model is expected to help higher education institutions operate more flexibly. A public foundation established in 2019 holds all the estates of the Corvinus University of Budapest, and the dividends arising from the university’s extensive State-allocated assets can be used to run the institution. The university therefore became exempt from the scope of the Budget Law which covers all public institutions. The aim was to help it operate more flexibly and cooperate more efficiently with businesses for innovation purposes. In 2020, the government decided to transfer its governance role in seven other universities to asset management foundations set up specifically for this purpose. This solution is somewhat different from the one used for the Corvinus University, as the governing foundations do not receive significant capital or wealth, but are funded by the State under a 15-20 year framework contract and a 3-5 year higher education service order and funding contract. The government will evaluate the institutions’ performance regularly. The announced changes met with protests from the senate and students of the University of Theatre and Film Arts. They warned that, by transferring founding rights to the foundation, external control over the board of trustees will be eliminated and the senate will be deprived of its decision-making power, posing a serious threat to universities’ autonomy (SzFE, 2020). Opposition to these changes hardened at the start of the new academic year.

8. Promoting adult learning

Recent steps aim to promote adult learning. Only 5.8% of adults participated in learning activities in 2019, well below the EU average of 10.8%. The 2019 VET law introduces shorter and more flexible training for ‘basic qualifications’ for adults. It also introduces the Register of Vocational Professions (Szakmajegyzék). Participation in training provided by VET institutions to obtain two basic qualifications included in the Register of Vocational Professions and one short cycle vocational qualification will become free. Changes in adult education will be introduced gradually between 2020 and 2022, and participation in training to obtain the first two basic qualifications remains free of charge. The 2020 national reform programme includes measures to further train unemployed people, or those employed in short-term working schemes, via distance learning. The government encourages IT and entrepreneurship training for micro and small businesses and contributes to tuition fees.

9. References

Council of the European Union (2020), Council Recommendation on the 2020 National Reform Programme of Hungary and delivering a Council opinion on the 2020 Convergence Programme of Hungary.

Deloitte et al. (2019), Deloitte and IPSOS: 2nd Survey of Schools: ICT in Education.

European Commission (2019), PISA 2018 and the EU.

FRA (2016), European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights, EU-MIDIS II: Second European Union Minorities and Discrimination Survey, Roma Selected findings 2016.

Government (2019a), Government of Hungary: 1341/2019. (VI. 11.) Korm. Határozat 1341/2019. (VI. 11.) a Digitális Kompetencia Keretrendszer fejlesztéséről és bevezetésének lépéseiről.

Government (2019b), Government of Hungary: 2019 Annual LXXX. Act on Vocational Training.

Government (2020), Government of Hungary: Sikeres és eredményes a digitális oktatás.

Hárs (2019), Hárs, Ágnes: Increasing outward migration opportunities, hopes and labour market impacts.

Hermann (2020), Hermann, Zoltán: Hány diákhoz nem jut el az online távoktatás?

IVSz (2020), Informatikai, Távközlési és Elektronikai Vállalkozások Szövetsége: Digitalizáció nélkül nincs versenyképes oktatás.

Köllő (2017), Köllő, János: Munkaerőhiány és szakképzés In: Munkaerőpiaci Tükör 2016, MTA-KRTK.

Köllő-Sebők (2019a), Köllő, János; Sebők, Anna: Mivel foglalkoznak azok a 17 évesek, akik nem járnak iskolába? In: Munkaerőpiaci Tükör 2018, MTA-KRTK.

Köllő-Sebők (2019b), Köllő, János; Sebők, Anna: Lakóhely szerinti különbségek a nem tanuló és nem dolgozó tizenévesek arányában a tankötelezettségi kor leszállítása előtt és után. In: Munkaerőpiaci Tükör 2018, MTA-KRTK. KSH, 2018

KSH (2020a), Central Statistical Office: Oktatási adatok, 2018/2019.

KSH (2020b), Central Statistical Office: Gyorstájékoztató Foglalkoztatottság, 2019. október–december.

NPK (2019), A Nemzeti Pedagógus Kar Országos Elnökségének javaslatai a pedagógus illetmények rendezésével kapcsolatban.

OECD (2019a), Education at a Glance.

OECD (2019b), Echazarra, A. and T. Radinger (2019), Learning in rural schools: Insights from PISA, TALIS and the literature, OECD Education Working Papers, No. 196.

OH (2019a), Oktatási Hivatal: Felvételi a középfokú iskolákban a 2018/2019. tanévben

OH (2019b), Oktatási Hivatal: Országos kompetenciamérés 2018 Országos jelentés.

Ombudsman (2019), Alapvető Jogok Biztosának Hivatala: Iskolaérettségi eljárásrend Az alapvető jogok biztosa a bevezetés halasztását kéri.

PSz (2020), Pedagógusok Szakszervezete: A Pedagógusok Szakszervezete (PSZ) nem támogatja az iskolaőrség létrehozását.

Radó (2018), Radó, Péter: A közoktatás szelektivitása mint a roma szegregáció általános kontextusa in Én vétkem, Motiváció Oktatási Egyesület.

SzFE (2020), Színház- és Filmművészeti Egyetem: Mi olyan sürgős? – Tíz érv a törvénytervezet ellen.

Varga (2019), Varga, Júlia (ed). A közoktatás indikátorrendszere 2019.

Annex I: Key indicators sources

Indicator Eurostat online data code
Early leavers from education and training edat_lfse_14 + edat_lfse_02
Tertiary educational attainment edat_lfse_03 + edat_lfs_9912
Early childhood education educ_uoe_enra10
Underachievement in reading, maths and science OECD (PISA)
Employment rate of recent graduates edat_lfse_24
Adult participation in learning trng_lfse_03
Public expenditure on education as a percentage of GDP gov_10a_exp
Expenditure on public and private institutions per student educ_uoe_fini04
Learning mobility:
- Degree-mobile graduates
- Credit-mobile graduates
DG EAC computation based on Eurostat / UIS / OECD data

Annex II: Structure of the education system

Source: European Commission/EACEA/Eurydice, 2020. The Structure of the European Education Systems 2019/2020: Schematic Diagrams. Eurydice Facts and Figures. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.

Comments and questions on this report are welcome and can be sent by email to:



1 Eurostat: [educ_uoe_perp04]

2 Accessed on 20.05.2020.

3 Source: KIR-STAT database

4 A teacher’s salary corresponded to 157.8% of the guaranteed minimum wage in the case of a bachelor’s degree and to 172.9% in the case of a master’s degree according to the 2013 amendment of the Act on National Public Education.