European Education Area Progress Report 2020

Education and Training Monitor 2020


1. Key indicators

Figure 1 – Key indicators overview
Estonia EU-27
2009 2019 2009 2019
Education and training 2020 benchmarks
Early leavers from education and training (age 18-24) 13.5% 9.8% 14.0% 10.2%
Tertiary educational attainment (age 30-34) 36.3% 46.2% 31.1% 40.3%
Early childhood education
(from age 4 to starting age of compulsory primary education)
96.1% 92.8%18 90.3% 94.8%18
Proportion of 15 year-olds underachieving in: Reading 13.3% 11.1%18 19.3% 22.5%18
Maths 12.7% 10.2%18 22.2% 22.9%18
Science 8.3% 8.8%18 17.8% 22.3%18
Employment rate of recent graduates by educational attainment (age 20-34 having left education 1-3 years before reference year) ISCED 3-8 (total) 67.7% 83.3% 78.0% 80.9%
Adult participation in learning (age 25-64) ISCED 0-8 (total) 10.5% 20.2% 7.9% 10.8%b
Learning mobility Degree mobile graduates (ISCED 5-8) : 10.1%18 : 4.3%18
Credit mobile graduates (ISCED 5-8) : 5.5%18 : 9.1%18
Other contextual indicators
Education investment Public expenditure on education as a percentage of GDP 7.0% 6.2%18 5.1% 4.6%18
Expenditure on public and private institutions per student in € PPS ISCED 1-2 €4 65412 €5 24017 €6 072d, 12 €6 240d, 16
ISCED 3-4 €5 55112 €5 08517 :12 €7 757d, 16
ISCED 5-8 €6 414d, 12 €10 15417 €9 679d, 12 €9 977d, 16
Early leavers from education and training (age 18-24) Native-born 13.8% 9.6% 12.6% 8.9%
Foreign-born :u :u 29.3% 22.2%
Tertiary educational attainment (age 30-34) Native-born 35.9%u 44.2% 32.0% 41.3%
Foreign-born 44.6% 75.9% 25.1% 35.3%
Employment rate of recent graduates by educational attainment (age 20-34 having left education 1-3 years before reference year) ISCED 3-4 65.2% 79.4% 72.2% 75.9%
ISCED 5-8 70.5% 87.5% 83.7% 85.0%

Sources: Eurostat; OECD (PISA); Learning mobility figures are calculated by DG Education, Youth, Sport and Culture, based on UOE 2018 data. Further information can be found in Annex I and in Volume 1 ( Notes: The 2018 EU average on PISA reading performance does not include ES; b= break in time series, d = definition differs, u= low reliability, := not available, 12= 2012, 16 = 2016, 17 = 2017, 18=2018.

Figure 2 - Position in relation to strongest and weakest performers

Source: DG Education, Youth, Sport and Culture, based on data from Eurostat (LFS 2019, UOE 2018) and OECD (PISA 2018).

2. Highlights

  • Digital solutions are an integral part of teaching and learning in Estonia. The constant focus on digital education has allowed a rather swift move to distance-learning in reaction to COVID-19.
  • The Estonian school system equips young people with a high level of basic skills, combining excellence with a high degree of equity. However, reducing early school leaving, improving the labour market relevance of education and training, and further expanding adult learning programmes remain key to ensuring adequate skills levels in the post-COVID context.
  • Significant efforts were made to improve the attractiveness of the teaching profession. However, attracting young talent in response to the high share of ageing teachers remains a pressing challenge.
  • Graduates from vocational education and training (VET) have good prospects of finding a job.

3. A focus on digital education

Estonia ranks high in the Human Capital dimension of the Commission’s Digital Economy and Society Index (DESI). Estonia had reviewed and updated its ‘Digital Agenda 2020’ strategy in 2018. Estonia ranks 3rd in the EU on Human Capital dimension of DESI. Sixty-two percent of the population have at least basic digital skills and 37% have above basic digital skills, both above the EU average (58% and 33% respectively). The percentage of ICT graduates (7.4%), ICT specialists (5.7%) and female ICT specialists (2.6%) in Estonia increased in 2019 and is higher than the EU average (3.8%, 3.1% and 0.8% respectively). However, businesses have identified skills shortages as some of the main obstacles to investment (84% of firms).

Digital education and digital skills are key priorities in education and training policies. Estonia’s ambitions as a digital society are reflected in continuous efforts to apply modern digital technology in learning and teaching, improve teachers’ and students’ digital skills and improve digital infrastructure. The constant focus on digital education and digital solutions has allowed Estonia to move rather swiftly to remote-learning, in reaction to COVID-19. For the future, authorities aim to further build the effectiveness of information technology in learning, teaching and school leadership (MoER 2019a).

Estonian teachers regularly use digital solutions in teaching but feel that their digital skills are in need of improvement. A 2018 teacher satisfaction survey (Ministry of Education and Research 2019b) showed that 95% of teachers in general education schools use digital solutions in the classroom, with two-thirds assigning students tasks to be completed in a digital environment. Thirty-nine percent of teachers reported using computer-based tasks when assessing students. About three quarters of the surveyed teachers use computers and presentation tools daily or weekly, while less than 10% of teachers have used digital tools such as measuring sensors, 3D printers, robotic and mechatronic devices. Nevertheless, teachers self-assess their own digital skills as insufficient (OSKA, 2018a). Only 30% of teachers reported in the 2018 OECD TALIS survey that they feel sufficiently prepared to use ICT in teaching (Taimalu et al., 2018). This situation can be explained by at least two factors: rapid technological progress, which requires teachers to update their skills regularly (Haaristo et al., 2019; Leppik et al., 2017), and to some extent the large proportion of teachers over 50 years of age, with younger teachers self-reporting a higher level of digital skills. Digital learning has been a focus for teachers’ continuing professional development (CPD) in recent years (OECD, 2020). Between 2016 and 2020, about 80% of teachers have attended CPD in digital skills and the vast majority considers that their skills have improved (Haaristo et al., 2019). Much of the training is free of charge and funded by the European Social Fund (ESF). In TALIS 2018, the percentage of teachers who reported that ICT skills for teaching was included in their professional development activities was among the highest in the OECD: 74.1% v 60.4% to replace with EU averages (TALIS 2018).

Schools in Estonia are digitally well equipped. Ninety-nine percent of students in upper secondary education and around 90% in primary and lower secondary education go to highly digitally equipped and connected schools, significantly more than the average in the EU. Estonian schools have better internet access compared to the EU average. More than half of Estonian students attend schools where the Internet speed is over 100mbps; 78%-91% attend schools with wireless LAN (European Commission, 2019). Smart devices and also computers are used in teaching and learning. Significant investments, including with EU funds, were made between 2016 and 2019 to improve school digital infrastructure and expand digital learning resources for general and vocational education. The authorities plan to further modernize school infrastructure in all schools by 2022 (MoER, 2019c).

Digital competences of students’ and schools are assessed through self-assessment and standardised evaluations. In 2019, Estonia developed a standard determining test to measure students’ basic level of digital competences. 83% of the 9th grade sample students reached the pass mark (50%). Students receive verbal feedback on their performance, and schools receive feedback on their delivery of digital competencies. (MoeER, 2020) Furthermore the 2018 Satisfaction Survey showed that 69% of fourth graders and only half of eighth grade students believe that digital skills are adequately taught at school. The percentage goes down to in the case of eleventh graders (41%), (MoER, 2019b). Advanced IT education and advanced IT skills training are not compulsory within the national curriculum, but in practice more than a third of students are exposed to these through various subjects, elective courses or hobby class (ibid). In addition, at school level, the Digital Mirror is a tool used to help schools to assess their digital maturity and develop an improvement plan. Although Estonians are unhappy with their level of digital skills, there skills level is above the average in the EU. The Digital Economy and Society Index (DESI) shows that in 2019 96% of Estonians aged 16-19 assessed their skills as basic or above basic, compared to the EU average of 82% (DESI). This contradiction could be partly explained by the difference existing between self-perception, expectations and real skills levels.

Box 1: European Structural and Investment Funds support the development of digital skills in Estonia

“E-koolikott” is an electronic platform for digital learning resources for basic schools, general upper secondary and vocational education. It includes materials created by teachers and education specialists, universities and publishers. These learning resources are intended primarily for teachers and students as primary and supplementary materials, but are also made available to parents. The simple ‘reading’ mode is available for everyone. With ID-based authentication, it is possible to include more study materials, to recommend and give feedback, and to make personal compilations of study materials.


4. Investing in education and training

Estonia’s investment in education and training is high in EU-comparison. The latest available data shows that in 2018, Estonia’s general government expenditure on education recorded a strong growth of 10.9% in real terms, reaching the equivalent of 6.2% of GDP (COFOG). This percentage is significantly above the EU average of 4.6%. As a share of total government expenditure, spending on education was the highest in the EU in 2018 (15.8% compared to EU-27: 9.9%). In 2020, additional funds were earmarked to further increase teacher salaries, including a top-up for higher education staff, as well as extra funds for improving Estonian language learning in kindergartens and schools. As a reaction to COVID-19, supplementary funding was allocated to support research and development activities and private education providers in overcoming the impact of the coronavirus (NRP, 2020).

Box 2: Smart and Active Estonia 2035

Estonian authorities are in the process of developing the country’s education and training strategy for the period up to 2035, as a successor of the Lifelong Learning Strategy 2014-2020. Strategic goals of the strategy include: diverse and accessible learning opportunities and education system that enables flexible learning pathways; competent and motivated teachers and school leaders, diverse learning environments and learner-centered approach; learning opportunities match the development needs of the sociey and the labour market, covering all levels of education and training, from early childhood education and care to adult learning, and will constitute the basis for planning EU funds in the period 2021-2027. The strategy also has a strong dimension on non-formal learning and youth policies closely linked to education.

5. Modernising early childhood and school education

Efforts to modernise early childhood education and care continue, while participation rates remain somewhat below the EU average. In 2018, the participation rate in early childhood education for children aged 4 to compulsory primary education age was 92.8% (EU average: 94.8%). For children aged 0-3, the enrolment rate in childcare was 28.3% (EU average: 34.7%). A new curriculum for kindergarten children is under preparation. The International Early Learning and Child Well-being study (OECD, 2020a) found that children in Estonia have strong self-regulation and social-emotional skills. To support Estonian language learning from an early age, the pilot project providing Estonian speaking teachers in pre-school education groups in the two regions with the highest proportion of Russian speakers continues.

The Estonian school education system equips young people with a high level of basic skills. Estonia remains at the top of the rankings in the 2018 OECD Programme for International Students Assessment (PISA). The average score of Estonian 15 year-olds is the highest in the EU in all tested subjects and one of the highest in the world. Furthermore, the proportion of underachieving students is the lowest in the EU and significantly below the EU average and the EU benchmark of less than 15% by 2020: 11.1% in reading (EU average: 22.5%), 10.2% in mathematics (EU average: 22.9%) and 8.8% in science (EU average: 22.3%). Only 4.2% of Estonian students are underachievers in all three tested subjects simultaneously (EU average 13.2%). Compared to 2009, Estonia’s performance has recorded steady growth in reading and mathematics and stable and high results in science (MoER, 2019d).

Estonia combines excellence in teaching basic skills with a high level of equity. The impact of socioeconomic status on student’ performance is one of the lowest in the EU. Only 6% of reading performance is explained by socioeconomic status (the EU average is 14%), while the percentage of resilient1 students is one of the highest among PISA-participating countries. Even so, there is score-points difference of 61 in reading (comparable to between 1 and 2 years of schooling) between advantaged and disadvantaged students. As in all participating countries, Estonian girls significantly outperform boys in reading, although this gap has decreased over time following an improvement in the reading score of boys. The percentage of top performers, which captures to what extent a school system can produce excellent results in basic skills, is one of the highest in the EU (Figure 3).

Figure 3 - Low and top performers in reading, maths, science in PISA between 2012 and 2018

Source: OECD (2019), PISA 2018. Note: The EU-27 averages for reading do not include ES results.

Measures were taken to facilitate education during the pandemic. During the pandemic period, the Government of Estonia decided to close all educational institutions, except kindergartens, and applied only digital learning solutions from 16 March due to the spread of the coronavirus in Estonia. The situation was reassessed regularly. All educational institutions (but also adult training schools and hobby schools) were recommended to use distance learning opportunities as much as possible until the end of the academic year. The Ministry of Education and Research (MoER) provided daily support for all educational institutions. In Estonia, all learning materials are available on paper and online in parallel, schools are digitally well equipped and connected. The Ministry of Education and Research provided only a few framework regulations to be followed during the distance learning period, leaving most decisions, and planning to school and kindergarten owners (municipalities to a large extent in general education and early childhood education). On the one hand, it is in line with the general approach of extensive professional autonomy in education management in Estonia. However, on the other hand, it allowed a great variety of mixed approaches which, were in part greeted with approval, but also with confusion and dissatisfaction by some stakeholders. In general, previously introduced e-solutions made the transition from regular schooling routine to distance learning considerably smooth. For example, a regular use of national electronic homework diaries/communication points eSchool and Stuudium by all schools, and from the first grade, ensured the familiar connection point between students, parents and teachers. Over the last years the government had initiated very good cooperation projects for co-creation of services with startups that provided free services for schools.

Tackling early school leaving remains a key challenge for improving the skills of young people. The rate of early leavers from education and training in the age group 18-24 declined in 2019 to 9.8%, compared to 11.3% the year before. The rate is now below the EU average of 10.2% but remains high in the context of a shrinking workforce and the need for a better trained, more flexible workforce. This is even more relevant in the post-COVID context. The 2019 drop is explained by a sharp decrease in the rate of early school leavers among men, even though the rate remains significantly higher compared to women in the same age-groups (i.e. 5.8 pps). Available data suggest that reducing early school leaving will remain a challenge in the short to medium term: while drop-out rates are low at the end of basic education, they have not declined significantly in upper secondary education, while the completion rate of upper secondary education is at the same level as in 2010 (i.e. 81.1%). In basic education lack of motivation, (MoER, 2018), combined with insufficient access to support and career guidance services (Haaristo et al., 2019), remain key drivers of early school leaving.

Significant efforts were made to increase the attractiveness of the teaching profession, which remains rather low. In 2018, 49.4% of school teachers (ISCED1-3) in Estonia were older than 50 (EU average 38.8%). Teacher salaries have continued to increase in a bid to raise the attractiveness of the profession but reaching the target of 120% of the average wage is proving to be challenging due to the fast wage increase in Estonia (MoER, 2019c). Between 2014 and 2019, the average salary of an Estonian teacher, working full-time, has increased by nearly 32% and the minimum salary by 39%. In general, working conditions have shown some improvements in recent years and include comparatively low teaching hours and early career subsidies (OECD, 2020b). However, initial teacher education programmes remain undersubscribed. Although in 2018 applications at the universities of Tallinn and Tartu increased by 24% compared to the previous year, the number of applications per place was only 0.9 (OECD, 2020b).

The performance gap between Estonian and Russian-medium schools persists. In PISA 2018, students from schools with Russian as the language of instruction scored, on average, 42 points lower in reading, 29 points lower in mathematics and 42 points lower in science. These performance gaps, alongside poor acquisition of the Estonian language, may impact Russian-speaking students’ study options at the end of basic school, as well as their opportunities to enter higher education or the labour market. Although the proportion of Russian-medium basic school graduates with at least B1 proficiency in Estonian has increased since 2011, the national target of 90% by 2020 is out of reach. However, in the International Early Learning and Child well-being study 2020 (IELS), Russian-speaking students scored higher than Estonian-speaking students on a range of early-learning measures, suggesting that these disparities do not exist at every level of the education system (OECD, 2020a).

School climate is faced with some challenges. The disciplinary climate in Estonian schools, as reported by 15 year-olds, has shown some improvements and is among the best in the OECD (OECD, 2020b). However, 25% of the students reported having been bullied at least a few times a month (EU average: 22.1%). Their reading performance was 15 score-points lower compared to students who did not report bullying (EU average: 35 score-points). In recent years anti-bullying policies have gained importance. Estonia developed a bullying-free education concept setting out insights and approaches that ensure a safe school path for every student (MoER, 2019c). However, 26.4% of Estonian youngsters reported a sense of not belonging to school, 4.4 pps p more than in 2015. This is strongly linked with lower PISA performance, reducing scores by 29 score-points (EU average: 16 score-points).

6. Modernising vocational education and training

Graduates from vocational education and training (VET) have better prospects of finding a job than on average in the EU. In 2019, the employment rate of recent VET graduates in the age group 20-34 was 86.2%, above the EU average (79.1%) and higher than the employment rate for graduates of general upper secondary education (62.6%). VET, including higher professional education qualifications, boosts salary by 5-20%2 compared to general upper secondary education (Cedefop ReferNet Estonia, 2019). Yet, participation rates in VET remain below the EU average: 40.1 % of all learners in upper secondary education (UOE, 2018), below the EU average (48.4%). To enhance responsiveness, the planning of study places in programmes of national importance is negotiated separately with each school and the school council (Cedefop ReferNet, 2020). Participation in work-place based learning is low at 6%, compared to the EU average of 28% (UOE, 2018) but gradually improving. An important step towards strengthening the work-based learning tutor competence model is now being integrated into the VET teacher occupational qualification standard that gives WBL - work-based learning tutors an opportunity to obtain a professional qualification certificate (Cedefop ReferNet Estonia, 2020).

In 2019, the VET learner-based financing system was amended to improve accessibility in regions, motivation and autonomy of providers. The state covers operational costs, of which 20% are now performance-based. The flexible organisation of VET allowed providers to adapt provision during the abruption of teaching due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Study resources for VET are available in the learning resources portal e-koolikott however neither a vocational nor a final exam are being held during distance learning.

7. Modernising higher education

Tertiary educational attainment remains above the EU average but low completion rates are problematic. Although tertiary educational attainment in the age-group 30-34 was above the EU average in 2019 (46.2% compared to 40.3%), it had fallen for a second consecutive year (from 48.4% in 2017). The rate risks to decrease further if the high drop-out rates persist. In 2019, 13.5% of all higher education students had dropped out, with the rate varying between 7.9%, in health related programmes to 16.2%, in ICT programmes. Drop-out rates are particularly high in the first academic year, especially in engineering and construction (28.6%) and natural sciences, mathematics and statistics (28.1%). Only 34% of students actually graduate in nominal time (Reps, M, 2019). With forecasts showing that the number of higher education graduates will not suffice to meet future labour market needs (OSKA, 2018b), improving completion rates is essential. What is more, in 2019, the already wide gender gap in tertiary educational attainment worsened and now stands at 26.6 pps (with 33.5% for men and 60% for woman).

Better aligning higher education to labour market and learners’ needs remains important in the post-COVID-19 context. Preliminary analysis (OSKA, 2020) suggests that longer-term trends that began before the COVID-19 pandemics will continue to impact the economy, with demand likely to increase in a number of sectors, including ICT, construction, healthcare and education. An increase in the number of STEM graduates is seen as important for productivity growth (EC, 2020; MoER, 2019c). Although the proportion of graduates in STEM fields has increased in recent years (30.7% in 2018, EU average: 25.4%) the actual number of professionals ready to enter the labour market is rather low. This is due to the combination of demographic factors, high-drop rates and the unattractiveness of certain STEM fields. In fact, ICT is the only study field that recorded an increase in the number of students over the past ten years (+24%), with the rest declining with rates from 7% (health and welfare) to 54% (in social sciences). Despite the significant shortage of specialists in several technological fields, the number of graduates in these fields is decreasing to add (MoER, 2019c). The number of students entering higher education is decreasing as the late cohorts in relevant age have been decreasing. Due to the increase of students at second and third levels (stemming from to the interest of international students) and comparatively fewer students at bachelor level, students’ average age increased to 27. However, the education system remains too rigid in this respect; the organisation of studies is based on the logic of linear educational paths and does not provide sufficiently for work-study combinations. It does not take into account the needs of modern learners and does not enable a swift adaption to requirements of the rapidly changing labour market (ibid).

Higher education institutions in Estonia have a good level digital infrastructure. Institutions had earlier experience with regular use of e-learning from previous times, which was benefiting the distance learning situation during the pandemic period to a large extent supported significantly by EU funds. Students in higher education are well equipped with digital devices.

8. Promoting adult learning

The focus of adult learning policies is increasingly on delivering high quality learning through implementation of a monitoring and evaluation framework. In 2019, Estonian adults within the age group 25-64 were almost twice as likely to participate in learning compared to the EU average (20.2% v 10.8%). Participation in learning schemes has also increased for the low qualified (9.2% compared to 7.4% in 2018) and for the unemployed (22.3%). Since October 2019, the quality of courses given by 500 trainers across the country to unemployed people is assessed based on the conditions set out in the Adult Education Act. Training providers for unemployed are evaluated first, while the overall framework will be implemented more widely in the future. The framework is developed and implemented by the Estonian Quality Agency for Higher and Vocational Education. A pilot evaluation in 2018 showed that only about 50% of the course providers met the quality criteria (Unemployment Insurance Fund, 2019). It aimed to encourage training providers to make further decisions on the necessary measures to increase the quality of adult training.

Figure 4 - Participation rate in education and training, (25-64), 2019

Source: Eurostat, LFS, [trng_lfse_03].

In the current Covid-19 pandemic, efforts are made to invite adults to acquire new skills and knowledge through online learning. This is accompanied by a worldwide increase in the access to free online learning platforms and programmes. As a potential positive effect, this might raise the importance of informal learning during the crisis as well as beyond it. The share of adults who have basic or above basic overall digital skills increased slightly to 65% in 2019. However, there is a risk of skills polarisation between high- and low-skilled people and between those with the skills and motivation for self-managed online learning and those without these skills. The Estonian Lifelong Learning Strategy pays specific attention to raising digital skills among the Estonian population (MoER, 2014). The share of population (aged 16-74) with at least basic level of digital skills has increased gradually from 65% in 2012 to 88% in 20173. A target has been set to increase it to 95% by 202 (MoER, 2020).

The number of adults with no secondary or professional education in Estonia remains relatively high despite policy efforts to reduce it. To mitigate skills mismatch, in 2020 almost 600 publicly funded non-formal training courses were planned to be provided to 7 300 adults in vocational education institutions (MoER, 2020a). These courses are further complemented by courses given by Unemployment Insurance Fund focusing particularly on risk groups, either employed and unemployed. 

9. References

European Commission (2019a), 2nd Survey of Schools: ICT in education. DG CNECT (see also national reports)

European Commission (2020), 2020 European Semester: Assessment of progress on structural reforms, prevention and correction of macroeconomic imbalances, and results of in-depth reviews under Regulation (EU) No 1176/2011, Country report Estonia 2020

Digital Economy and Society index, DESI 2020.

Haaristo, H.-S., Räis, M. L., Kasemets, L., Kallaste, E., Aland, L., Anniste, K., Anspal, S., Haugas, S., Jaanits, J., Järve, J., Koppel, K., Lang, A., Lauri, T., Michelson, A., Murasov, M., Mägi, E., Piirimäe, K., Põder, K., Rajaveer, K., Sandre, S.-L., Sõmer, M., (2019). Elukestva õppe strateegia vahehindamine. (Interim evaluation of Lifelong learning strategy). Tallinn: Poliitikauuringute Keskus Praxis, Rakendusuuringute Keskus CentAR.

Leppik, C., Haaristo, H.-S., Mägi, E., (2017). IKTharidus: digioskuste õpetamine, hoiakud ja võimalused üldhariduskoolis ja lasteaias. ICT education: teaching digital skills, attitudes and opportunities in general education and kindergarten Tallinn: Poliitikauuringute Keskus Praxis.

Ministry of Education and Research. 2014. (MoER, 2014) Estonian Lifelong Learning Strategy 2020. Ministry of Education and Research. Available: [Accessed 30.04.2020]

Ministry of Education and Research, (MoER, 2019a). Haridusvaldkonna arengukava 2021–2035 koostamise ettepanek. Education Development Plan 2021–2035 proposal for drafting. Approved by the Government of the Republic 28.11.2019.

Ministry of Education and Research, (MoER, 2019b). Haridus- ja Teadusministeeriumi valdkondade 2018. a arengukavade täitmise analüüs. Analysis of the implementation of 2018 development plans of the Ministry of Education and Research.

Ministry of Education and Research (MoER, 2019c), Important activities in the 2019/2020 academic year

MoER (2019d), Summary of PISA results

Ministry of Education and Research. 2020. (MoER,2020) Estonian Digital Education Programme 2020-2023. Ministry of Education and Research. Available:

Ministry of Education and Research. 2020.(MoER, 2020a) Riik pakub tasuta kursusi 7300 inimesele üle Eesti. Published 13.02.2020. Available:

National Reform Programme, Estonia

OECD (2019a), PISA 2018 Results (Volume I): What Students Know and Can Do, PISA, OECD Publishing, Paris,

OECD (2019b), Country note Estonia

OECD. 2020a. Early Learning and Child Well-being. A Study of Five-year-Olds in England, Estonia, and the United States.

OECD 2020b, Policy Outlook Estonia.

OSKA (2018a), Mets, U., Viia, A., Future outlook on labour and skills needs: education and research;

OSKA (2018b), Estonian Labour Market Today and Tomorrow: 2018,

OSKA (2020), Kriis toob tööturu tuleviku kiiremini kohale

Reps, Mailis. 2019. OECD Education at Glance 2019. Presentation slides.

Taimalu, M., Uibu, K., Luik, P., Leijen, Ä., (2019). Õpetajad ja koolijuhid elukestvate õppijatena. OECD Rahvusvhaelise õpetamise ja õppimise uuringu TALIS 2018 tulemused. 1. osa. Teachers and school leaders as lifelong learners. Results of the OECD International Study on Teaching and Learning TALIS 2018. Part 1.

Annex I: Key indicators sources

Indicator Eurostat online data code
Early leavers from education and training edat_lfse_14 + edat_lfse_02
Tertiary educational attainment edat_lfse_03 + edat_lfs_9912
Early childhood education educ_uoe_enra10
Underachievement in reading, maths and science OECD (PISA)
Employment rate of recent graduates edat_lfse_24
Adult participation in learning trng_lfse_03
Public expenditure on education as a percentage of GDP gov_10a_exp
Expenditure on public and private institutions per student educ_uoe_fini04
Learning mobility:
- Degree-mobile graduates
- Credit-mobile graduates
DG EAC computation based on Eurostat / UIS / OECD data

Annex II: Structure of the education system

Source: European Commission/EACEA/Eurydice, 2020. The Structure of the European Education Systems 2019/2020: Schematic Diagrams. Eurydice Facts and Figures. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.

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1 Resilient students are those from the bottom quartile of the PISA index of economic, social and cultural status (ESCS) who beat the odds against them and perform at high levels when compared with students of the same socio-economic status from around the world (OECD)

2 Wage premium for tertiary graduates exists.

3 The methodology of calculating level of digital skills in 2014 differed from DESI methodology. Within the new strategy Estonia uses DESI methodology.