European Commission

Education and Training Monitor 2023

Comparative report

Chapter 1. The teaching profession

1.1. Teacher shortages across the EU

Teacher shortages are reported in nearly all the 2023 Education and Training Monitor’s country reports. A lack of qualified teachers persists across the EU and has been aggravated in the last few years by, among other things, the COVID-19 pandemic. Moreover, in some countries, a dramatic increase in reported teacher shortages is expected in the coming years10. Commonly associated with a decline in student performance and educational outcomes, doing something about the lack of a qualified teacher body is high on the EU’s agenda11.

This chapter starts off by identifying the areas most affected by the shortages, then goes on to discuss the attractiveness of the teaching profession, as a main factor determining inflow, retention rates and outflow. There is currently no comparative indicator for teacher shortages, and there are considerable coverage and comparability challenges to be overcome for a cross-EU indicator to be developed (Box 3). Using the most recent evidence12, this chapter examines the severity of teacher shortages according to demographics13, geographical area, and subject14. Subsequent chapters come back to the overarching theme of the teaching profession and, if relevant, teacher shortages by level of education.

Box 3. Monitoring teacher shortages at EU level15

Monitoring teacher shortages at EU level meaningfully and reliably is hard. Most EU countries have introduced indicators to measure or even forecast shortages, but methodologies vary, so coverage and comparability remain an issue. Lithuania developed a forecasting tool with EU support, and Italy and Austria have started similar projects under the EU Technical Support Instrument.

Some countries focus on single indicators, such as the number of unfilled vacancies, the pupil-teacher ratio, or enrolment in teacher training programmes. Others combine multiple indicators in a more granular measure, comparing various supply and demand factors. The latter approach may provide a more comprehensive picture, but it is difficult to collect the required data. The challenge of making any of the current national monitoring approaches an EU-level standard is accentuated by the variation in teacher accreditation systems and methodologies adopted by each EU country.

Potential cross-EU comparative indicators could focus on the proportion of unfilled teaching positions at the start of the academic year or on future teacher shortages, composed from the number of available and qualified teachers, the enrolment rate, and the desired pupil-teacher ratio. There are currently no data for such indicators, however.

An ageing teaching workforce, with high attrition rates, risks creating an imbalance between teachers leaving the profession and those joining it16. Figure 1 compares the 2021 proportion of teachers aged 55 and over to its 2016-21 development, singling out the countries with a particularly old and ageing teaching workforce. The problem is the worst in Greece (secondary education) and Portugal (primary and secondary education), but the Baltic countries (particularly secondary education in Latvia and Lithuania) and Hungary also give cause for concern. Finally, Italy stands out, with its proportion of teachers aged 55+ significantly outweighing its proportion of teachers under the age of 30. Overall, the challenge of an ageing profession gets progressively worse from primary to lower secondary to upper secondary education.

Figure 1. The ageing of the teaching profession is most pronounced in Greece, Portugal, the Baltic countries, and Hungary.

A shortage of male teachers is most evident at the lower levels of education (Figure 2). In pre-primary education, the proportion of female teachers tops 90% in all EU countries except the Netherlands (88.1%), and averages 95.5% across the EU. Men are severely under-represented in primary education, with only Denmark recording a proportion of male teachers (31.7%) above 30%. In secondary education, some EU countries come close to having a gender balance. The proportion of female teachers drops below 60% in lower secondary education for two EU countries (the Netherlands and Luxembourg) and six more countries can be added to that list for upper secondary education17. Tertiary education is a different story. In some EU countries18, female teachers are the majority, although the proportion does not go over 60%. In others19, the proportion of female teachers in tertiary education drops below 40%.

Figure 2. Male teachers are severely under-represented at lower education levels.

Source: European Commission calculations based on Eurostat (UOE 2021) data

Box 4. Examples from the country reports

Some countries are coming up with innovative solutions to address immediate needs due to teacher shortages. In Ireland, a pilot scheme for sharing teachers among schools has been announced. It would give teachers of high-demand subjects such as Irish, mathematics, sciences, and modern languages a full-time teaching contract, but this would be split between more than one school. In the same vein, the new pre-university education law in Romania envisages the possibility of sharing resources, including teachers. For this, school consortia will be established, in which the participation of disadvantaged schools from rural and isolated areas will be encouraged. In the Netherlands, the Ministry of Education allows schools in the 5 biggest cities to experiment with alternative week schedules. Schools may organise education differently one day a week, for instance by inviting professionals from outside school, such as artists, musicians, and technicians, to teach classes for a small part of the curriculum. The French and Flemish Communities of Belgium have piloted platforms and pools of replacement teachers.

Teacher shortages also vary from one subject to another, and are particularly severe in science, technology, engineering, mathematics (STEM)20. Several EU countries report a lack of foreign language teachers21 and native language teachers22. It also proves difficult to attract specialist informatics teachers. Specific to informatics is the relatively low number of students obtaining an academic degree23, making the initial pool from which teachers are taken small. This situation is exacerbated by the more attractive salaries graduates can earn in industry24. Most EU education systems are acting to address shortages in certain subjects or specialisations (Figure 3).

Figure 3. Policies to address teacher shortages in specific subjects are more frequently reported than policies to address geographical imbalances.

An unequal distribution of teachers has also been reported across geographic areas or different types of schools, with schools in disadvantaged areas finding it harder to recruit and retain teachers25. In 2023, 14 education systems have measures in place to address the geographical challenge26 and eight systems27 have set up measures for disadvantaged schools (Figure 3).

In a nutshell

A lack of comparable data makes it hard to capture the complex interplay of supply and demand in the teaching profession. And yet, using country-specific evidence, teacher shortages are widely reported and, in some cases, expected to increase. Shortages vary depending on demographics, subject, and geographic area. Prominent examples are understaffed schools in disadvantaged regions, a lack of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) teachers, too few language teachers, and a shortage of male teachers at lower education levels. There is also considerable ageing of the teaching workforce in countries such as Greece, Portugal, the Baltic countries, and Hungary. Policy responses tend to be aimed at addressing shortages in specific subjects rather than at addressing geographic imbalances. A few countries are also looking into innovative solutions, such as pooling teachers across schools or organising school timetables differently.

1.2. The attractiveness of the teaching profession

This section is supported by an online teachers’ dashboard in the Monitor Toolbox. The development of the dashboard is described in Box 6.

1.2.1. Motivation

High workloads and long hours are reasons teachers leave the profession28. A workload reduction may make it necessary to recruit additional staff, such as (non-)teaching staff or support teachers29, to safeguard students’ learning time, and maintain the quality of education. Many EU countries have invested in (non-)teaching assistants and support teachers30. In terms of allocation, only 50.2% of lower secondary teachers’ workload is spent on teaching in the classroom, with teachers in Finland (62.1%) and Latvia (59.8%) spending a significantly higher proportion in the classroom than teachers in Sweden (43.9%)31.

On the positive side, perceived teacher autonomy in the classroom is high across EU countries, all scoring within a 6 percentage point deviation from the high EU average of 90.8%32. Somewhat lower percentages of teachers (75.8% on average) feel they can participate in school decision-making33. This degree of collegial leadership ranges from countries such as Belgium (68.4%) to Bulgaria (89.0%).

Perceived societal appreciation of teachers scores significantly lower, with only 17.7% of teachers across EU countries reporting that their profession is valued34. Teachers from France (6.6%), Slovenia (5.6%) and Slovakia (4.5%) report much lower scores. Reasons for the decreasing social status may include the changing working conditions as well as negative media coverage of teachers and education as a whole35. It is also reflected in the fact that, compared to average tertiary-educated workers, teachers’ salaries are 10.5% lower across the EU (Figure 4)36. Several countries have implemented major salary increases in recent years (Box 5).

Figure 4. Teachers’ salaries are almost 11% lower than those of average tertiary-educated workers.

Box 5. Examples from the country reports

To make the teaching profession more attractive, a number of EU countries have engaged in major salary increases and some have set targets for teachers’ salaries in comparison to the national average wage. This is the case, for example, for Lithuania (130%), Czechia (130%), Bulgaria (125%), and Estonia (120%). In Bulgaria, starting salaries have more than doubled since 2017. In Lithuania, teachers’ salaries have gone up by 70% since 2019, and in Latvia by 59% since 2016. The raise has been between 20% and 30% in Czechia, Estonia, and Romania in recent years. Nevertheless, real increases have been lower in all countries due to inflation, and remain below the salaries of other tertiary graduates across the EU. Some EU countries have introduced other financial incentives for teachers working in schools with a lot of disadvantaged students (see also Section 3.3). For instance, the Netherlands has launched a ‘labour market allowance’ (arbeidsmarkttoelage) for teachers who teach at disadvantaged schools. In Sweden, schools can receive extra grants to reward excellence or the teaching of disadvantaged children.

Finally, linking career progression to a formal feedback process such as appraisal may give teachers a sense of agency and ownership. Indeed, career progression, besides being an automatic process after a given number of years’ service, is increasingly being linked to the assessment of a teacher’s performance37. In 15 EU education systems, regulations (or collective agreements) create links between teacher appraisal and the decision on promotion to positions with special responsibilities or a higher career level38. Appraisal is linked to salary progression in 6 systems39 and to allowances in 1240. There are only five EU countries where no financial incentives or promotion are linked to appraisal: Belgium (all three Communities), Denmark, Estonia, Ireland, and Luxembourg.

1.2.2. Abilities

Teacher certification systems usually require prospective teachers to graduate from an approved initial teacher training programme41. EU countries are adopting different types of measures to attract more students into initial teacher training programmes. An increase in capacity42 or the quality and duration of professional training are among the measures being implemented to make initial teacher training more attractive. Evidence suggests that school placements and professional training43, which most initial teacher training systems across the EU include44, decreases the likelihood of dropout from initial teacher training.

High levels of support45 help to keep students in initial teacher training and novice teachers in the profession46. Early career support is widespread across the EU. Most education systems have a compulsory induction phase, while in Estonia, Slovenia, and Finland, it is recommended47. Mentoring support is provided on a compulsory basis to all newly qualified teachers in almost all education systems where induction is regulated48. However, despite the mandatory nature of mentoring, its uptake in some education systems remains low. On entering the profession, 19% of novice teachers across EU countries reported having an assigned mentor in 2018, ranging from 5.1% in Italy to 40.8% in the Netherlands49.

Box 6. The conceptual framework for looking at the attractiveness of the teaching profession

As a direct response to the 2021 EEA strategic framework Resolution, the European Commission, in cooperation with the Standing Group on Indicators and Benchmarks (SGIB), developed a brand-new indicator dashboard as a means to support EU countries’ debates on the teaching profession. The dashboard is an interactive, online tool that can be found in the Monitor Toolbox. Its primary purpose is to offer a broad comparison of enabling factors and potential policy levers in school education, thereby helping policymakers and stakeholders to identify and contextualise system-wide challenges and needs.

The dashboard’s conceptual framework takes inspiration from a 2020 European Commission report50 that was the product of a discussion on teacher and school leader careers for over 18 months. The conceptual framework51 is built around the concepts of motivation, abilities and opportunities, each with a number of actionable and policy-relevant indicator domains (Figure 5). Looking at aspects that affect teachers’ motivation, ownership over one’s career comes into view, but also matters such as a sense of control in the classroom, collegial leadership and the value society attaches to teachers. Indicator domains for abilities focus on how prepared teachers are for their career, whether they receive the right training at the right time and whether they can fall back on support networks. Finally, for opportunities, indicator domains give an indication of how accessible, flexible, and open teachers’ careers are.

Figure 5. The conceptual framework as based on a 2020 European Commission report.

Motivation – Agency, recognition, and reward

  • Actual teaching time
  • Perceived autonomy
  • Collegial leadership
  • Societal appreciation
  • Competitive salary
  • Ownership over career progression

Abilities – Preparedness, training, and support

  • On-the-job training in initial teacher training
  • Mentoring
  • Competence frameworks
  • Quality assurance in continuing professional development
  • Identifying development needs
  • Identifying support needs

Opportunities – Accessibility, permeability, and adaptability

  • Pathways to becoming a teacher
  • Stability
  • Career diversification
  • International mobility
  • Statutory starting salary
  • Progressive pay range

Throughout their career, teachers in most EU countries have a statutory duty to participate in at least one activity of continuing professional development, with high participation rates often reported to be high52. Quality control of professional development is done through accreditation in 13 EU countries for primary and lower secondary education53. Continuing professional development and professional support are increasingly acknowledged as not just tools to improve the performance of teachers and students. They are a way of improving teachers’ job satisfaction, with the potential to reduce their workload and improve teacher retention rates54.

A way to ensure that professional development and specialist support55 are based on actual needs – and that such needs are identified early and often – is to link them to appraisal. Over two thirds of EU education systems56 use appraisal to discuss teachers’ needs and participation in continuing professional development, while 11 of them also use appraisal to decide on access to specialised support57.

1.2.3. Opportunities

When it comes to entry into the teaching profession, important aspects are the recruitment of non-qualified teachers and opening entry up to alternative paths and certifications58. Around two thirds of EU education systems have introduced some alternative pathway into the teaching profession, such as professional-oriented education programmes, employment-based training, or special procedures such as examinations and certifications (Figure 6). In 2018, however, only an estimated 4.4% of EU teachers were reported to have qualified through alternative pathways, leaving traditional initial teacher training as the way most teachers enter the profession59.

Figure 6. Around two thirds of all EU education systems have introduced alternative pathways into the teaching profession.
Map showing the distribution of EU education systems according to the existence of alternative pathways into the teaching profession, wether professional-oriented education programmes, employment-based training or certification/examination procedures. A majority of the EU education systems have in place any or several alternative pathways.

Source: Eurydice 2023.

Note: professional-oriented education programmes usually aim to provide teacher training to university students or graduates in disciplines other than education, to workers in the private sector or to temporary teachers that are not fully qualified.

Across the EU, 82.4% of teachers have permanent contracts, with teachers in Spain (66.6%) and Portugal (73.8%) less likely to be permanent than teachers in Denmark (96.8%) and Latvia (92.9%)60. Career diversification is less common, with 15 EU countries adopting a multi-level career structure61 and 11 a single-level structure62. With career advancement opportunities more limited in the latter, an effective policy measure could be to introduce more diversified career structures63.

Box 7. Examples from the country reports

To address teacher shortages, some countries, such as the Netherlands and Estonia, have adopted comprehensive teacher action plans, covering the various aspects of attractiveness. Bulgaria is a noteworthy example, where comprehensive measures implemented since 2016 have already delivered some tangible results. Between 2018 and 2022, the number of students in bachelor’s programmes in education increased by 25.2%, along with a 40% increase in the relevant master’s programmes. Other countries have also done a lot to prevent or address teacher shortages. For instance, the Flemish Community of Belgium encourages entrants from other professions by recognising up to 10 years of seniority for people from the private sector. Latvia has introduced new fast-track initiatives for young professionals to obtain teaching qualifications (in particular STEM professionals) and created opportunities for teachers to extend their qualifications to other subjects. Scholarships for students in initial teacher training have been introduced in Bulgaria, Croatia, Estonia, and Lithuania. Spain aims to reduce the proportion of teachers with non-permanent contracts to 8%. In Sweden, some schools employ teaching assistants to reduce the administrative burden on teachers. Romania is developing a mentoring programme for novice teachers.

International staff mobility is another way to make a teaching career attractive and flexible64. The Erasmus+ programme provides opportunities for teaching staff to participate in mobility activities in EU countries, in other countries associated with the Erasmus+ programme, and, since the new programme began in 2021, third countries not associated with the programme. Erasmus+ mobility has been growing rapidly since 2014, and even rebounded in 2022, despite the major decrease in mobility due to the COVID-19 pandemic, resulting again in growing numbers of mobile teaching staff and educational organisations’ growing interest in mobility65.

Figure 7. A progressive pay range takes many different shapes and sizes across EU countries.

Figure 7 shows the progression of annual gross statutory salaries from the starting salary to the top range66. Comparing salary progression across EU countries is complex, however, given the stark differences in statutory starting salaries (even when adjusted for differences in purchasing power67), the absolute and relative progression from these starting salaries, and the time it takes to get to them. For instance, relative salary progression over a career ranges from 16% in Denmark68 to 143% in Cyprus, but both countries reach comparable salaries (adjusted for differences in purchasing power) after 15 years69.

In a nutshell

Assessing the attractiveness of the teaching profession helps to understand inflow and retention rates. EU countries use many policy levers to make a teaching career more attractive. Examples are efforts to alleviate heavy workloads, and the early identification of support and development needs through appraisal exercises. Countries are also working on measures to attract more students into initial teacher training, for instance through scholarship schemes, while at the same time introducing alternative pathways into the profession. Compared to the average salaries of tertiary educated workers, teachers’ salaries remain low, and EU countries are looking into solutions, be they across-the-board salary increases or targeted bonuses. Bulgaria, Czechia, Estonia, Lithuania, and Romania have been implementing major salary increases in recent years ranging from 20% to 70%. In short, only a comprehensive and balanced policy approach to both teacher recruitment and retention can do justice to the complex nature of shortages.

  • 10.See the 2023 report by the European Commission’s Joint Research Centre. The report cites the examples of Slovakia, where the lack of teachers is estimated to rise from 1 300 to almost 8 600 in 2025, and the Netherlands, where shortages are expected to top 4 000 teachers for 2023-24, compared to 2 322 for 2019.

  • 11.See, for instance, the European Commission’s 2022 EEA Progress Report and the 2023 Council Resolution.

  • 12.This chapter draws on the 2023 report by the European Commission’s Joint Research Centre; a 2023 joint analytical report on evidence-based solutions to teacher shortages by the European Expert Network on the Economics of Education (EENEE) and the Network of Experts working on the Social dimension of Education and Training (NESET); and the 2023 special data collection from the Eurydice network in support of the 2023 Education and Training Monitor. The 2023 Education and Training Monitor’s country reports feature more detailed and up-to-date country-specific examples.

  • 13.Age and sex are singled out here. A 2016 European Commission study has also highlighted the limited diversity of the EU teaching force in terms of migrant background, especially compared to the increasing diversity of learners. Five EU countries (Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Italy, and Portugal), from a group of 12 with sufficient data, recorded high under-representation of teaching staff from migrant backgrounds, while five other EU countries had medium under-representation (Estonia, the Netherlands, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, and Sweden). Only in Hungary and Slovakia was the disparity between the numbers of teachers and students from migrant backgrounds relatively narrow.

  • 14.Another significant aspect of teacher shortages is special needs education and students with disabilities. See the 2023 report by the European Commission’s Joint Research Centre.

  • 15.See the 2023 report by the European Commission’s Joint Research Centre.

  • 16.The inflow of teachers is determined by the number of graduates from initial teacher training programmes entering the profession and the inflow of entrants from other areas of study.

  • 17.Denmark, Sweden, Austria, Spain, Germany, and Greece. Monitor Toolbox

  • 18.Lithuania, Latvia, Finland, Romania, Bulgaria, and Croatia. Monitor Toolbox

  • 19.Luxembourg, Greece, Malta, and Italy. Monitor Toolbox

  • 20.Most EU education systems report shortages of permanent or temporary STEM teachers, with only a few exceptions. The exceptions are Greece, Italy, Cyprus, Hungary, Portugal, and Romania. See the 2022 Eurydice report on mathematics and science learning in schools (referring to the 2020-21 school year).

  • 21.French Community of Belgium and Flemish Community of Belgium, Bulgaria, Czechia, France, Croatia, Latvia, Hungary, Poland, and Portugal. See the 2023 EENEE-NESET report.

  • 22.Bulgaria, Czechia, Estonia, and Latvia (2023 EENEE-NESET report).

  • 23.Only 4.2% of 2020-21 tertiary graduates are ICT specialists (less than half of the graduates in education). The percentage is particularly low in Italy (1.5%), where there is one ICT graduate per five graduates in education, and below 3% in Portugal (2.5%), Belgium, and Cyprus (2.8%). Monitor Toolbox

  • 24.See the 2022 Eurydice report on informatics education. The European Commission adopted a 2023 proposal for a Council Recommendation on improving the provision of digital skills in education and training, with the purpose of addressing the shortage of specialised teachers on informatics and related digital areas.

  • 25.Teacher shortages may not concern equally all schools within in a country. Schools in big cities, disadvantaged neighbourhoods, remote or rural areas, or where most residents speak a different language, can face more difficulties to attract and retain teachers. See the 2023 Eurydice report.

  • 26.French Community of Belgium, Flemish Community of Belgium, Czechia, Germany, Estonia, Ireland, Greece, Spain, Croatia, Lithuania, Hungary, the Netherlands, Romania, and Finland. See the 2023 Eurydice report.

  • 27.Bulgaria, Czechia, Germany, Spain, France, Hungary, the Netherlands, and Sweden (2023 Eurydice report).

  • 28.See the 2023 EENEE-NESET report. In turn, with fewer teachers to divide the work, a higher workload is also one of the consequences of teacher shortages.

  • 29.(Non)-teaching support staff include teacher training students, special education teachers and social workers, who could take over some of the teaching duties, such as additional supervision during non-instructional periods, preparation of the learning environment, administrative tasks, and closer supervision of students with special educational needs.

  • 30.For example, the Flemish Community of Belgium, Bulgaria, Ireland, and Lithuania, as reported in the 2023 EENEE-NESET report.

  • 31.TALIS 2018 data. Monitor Toolbox Teachers’ dashboard The OECD’s Education at a Glance 2022 has more recent results for upper secondary teachers in 14 EU countries, ranging from 33.8% in Poland to 63.0 % in Latvia.

  • 32.TALIS 2018 data. Monitor Toolbox Teachers’dashboard

  • 33.TALIS 2018 data. Monitor Toolbox Teachers’dashboard

  • 34.TALIS 2018 data. Monitor Toolbox Teachers’dashboard

  • 35.According to the 2023 Eurydice report, the German-speaking and Flemish Communities of Belgium, Czechia, Germany, Ireland, France, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and Austria have all started dedicated communication campaigns to contribute to improving recognition for the profession. However, the 2023 EENEE-NESET report emphasises that, while such campaigns may represent a low-cost option to change perceptions of careers in teaching, their effectiveness so far remains unclear.

  • 36.An across-the-board salary increase seems to be the best way of attracting students into initial teacher training programmes, with the added advantage of increasing the profession’s social status and signalling the value that societies attach to education. The 2023 EENEE-NESET report, however, also identifies an across-the-board salary increase as one of the most expensive measures available to policymakers. The 2023 Eurydice report mentions Czechia, Estonia, France, and the Netherlands with recent measures including pay rises aimed at making teacher salaries more competitive. Countries can also consider, with greater cost-effectiveness, targeted financial incentives, such as bonuses or salary increases for teachers who meet specific criteria, like working in high-needs areas or teaching certain subjects. The 2023 Eurydice report includes a number of examples. The Flemish Community of Belgium changed legislation to allow retired teachers to earn an unlimited amount of extra income upon return to their profession. Spain can offer special benefits to teachers who accept a position in rural and remote areas. In Croatia, teachers in areas of special state concern receive a higher salary. In Hungary, teachers in schools in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas receive a higher salary. Estonia and France provide additional financial support for starting teachers. Estonia pays higher salaries to teachers in schools in Russian-speaking areas. In the Netherlands and Sweden, disadvantaged schools receive special financial bonuses that can be transferred to their teachers.

  • 37.See the 2023 Eurydice report. A link between appraisal and career progression can improve teachers’ professional development, motivation, and performance.

  • 38.Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, Spain, France, Croatia, Cyprus, Latvia, Lithuania, Hungary Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovenia and Sweden (2023 Eurydice report). Monitor Toolbox Teachers’dashboard

  • 39.France, Malta, the Netherlands, Portugal, Slovenia, and Sweden (2023 Eurydice report). Monitor Toolbox Teachers’dashboard

  • 40.Bulgaria, Czechia, Spain, Italy, Latvia, Hungary, the Netherlands, Austria, Poland, Slovenia, Slovakia, and Finland (2023 Eurydice report). Monitor Toolbox Teachers’dashboard

  • 41.Initial teacher training programmes are the first step in a teacher's career, and are often seen as the traditional pathway, compared to alternative pathways into the teaching profession (see Section 1.2.3). Initial teacher training aims to provide prospective teachers with core professional skills and to develop the attitudes needed for their future role and responsibilities. In a 2018 Eurydice report, a large majority of EU countries reported using teacher competence frameworks to define learning outcomes expected by the end of initial teacher training. Section 3.1 features more (recent) evidence in relation to teacher competence frameworks in both initial teacher training and continuing professional development, both in the context of tackling early school leaving.

  • 42.Bulgaria, Germany, Ireland, and Sweden (2023 Eurydice report).

  • 43.The Flemish Community of Belgium, Czechia, Denmark, France, Romania, and Sweden (2023 Eurydice report). Monitor Toolbox Teachers’dashboard According to the 2023 Eurydice report, other measures include special scholarships for initial teacher training (Bulgaria, Estonia, Lithuania, Hungary) and increased flexibility in terms of timing (Flemish Community of Belgium, Estonia, Malta) or content (the Netherlands). According to a 2018 Eurydice report, 21 EU education systems had a framework in place defining learning outcomes in initial teacher training.

  • 44.See a 2021 Eurydice report on teachers in Europe. Monitor Toolbox Teachers’dashboard

  • 45.Here, support comes from tutors, higher education institution staff and school mentors.

  • 46.The 2023 EENEE-NESET report suggests that introducing induction, support, and mentoring programs of at least two years can enhance the retention rates of new teachers and improve the performance of both teachers and students. A supportive growth environment proofs to be effective by fostering a collaborative working culture, expanding induction, support, and mentoring programs, ensuring continuing professional development, and developing strong school leadership.

  • 47.See the 2018 Eurydice report on teaching careers in Europe.

  • 48.See the 2021 Eurydice report on teachers in Europe.

  • 49.TALIS 2018 data. Monitor Toolbox Teachers’dashboard

  • 50.Developed by the Working Group on Schools as part of the previous strategic framework for European cooperation in education and training (ET2020).

  • 51.The conceptual framework can be populated with concrete indicators at (sub-)national or EU level. This chapter, and the online indicator dashboard that underpins it, focus on cross-EU indicators at the level of school education. Avoiding placing additional administrative burdens on EU countries, the indicator dashboard is almost exclusively populated with pre-existing comparative indicators, which are inevitably outdated in some cases.

  • 52.See a 2021 Eurydice report.

  • 53.Czechia, Denmark, Ireland, Greece, Spain, France, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Austria, Poland, and Slovakia. All except Denmark have accreditation providers for upper secondary. Data are from the OECD’s Education at a Glance 2022.Monitor Toolbox Teachers’dashboard

  • 54.See the 2023 EENEE-NESET report. The question which types of continuing professional development are most effective still calls for more research. Evidence shows that success factors for professional development activities are a high content focus, active learning, sustained duration, collective participation, coherence, and ownership.

  • 55.For instance, specialists, counsellors, coaches, and mentors.

  • 56.French Community of Belgium, Bulgaria, Czechia, Denmark, Estonia, Greece, Spain, France, Croatia, Cyprus, Latvia, Lithuania, Hungary, Malta, Austria, Portugal, Romania, Slovenia, Slovakia, Finland and Sweden (2023 Eurydice report). Monitor Toolbox Teachers’dashboard

  • 57.The French Community of Belgium, Bulgaria, Czechia, Greece, France, Cyprus, Lithuania, Hungary, Malta, Austria and Sweden (2023 Eurydice report). Monitor Toolbox Teachers’dashboard

  • 58.Alternative pathways are ones leading to a teaching qualification in addition to the main initial teacher training programmes, to deal with teacher shortages and attract other graduates or professionals to the teaching profession. According to the 2023 EENEE-NESET report, student achievement has not been found to be negatively affected the entry into the profession of people from other professions, which is an endorsement of this measure designed to ensure a greater inflow of potential candidates. However, it should be noted that entrants from other professions are less likely than teachers who have done initial teacher training to stay in the profession.

  • 59.As reported in a 2021 Eurydice report on the basis of TALIS 2018 data.

  • 60.TALIS 2018 data. Monitor Toolbox Teachers’dashboard Stability, or teachers’ perceived job security, while attractive, can make it difficult for young non-permanent teachers to find a stable workplace. The Flemish Community of Belgium has tried to tackle this by giving non-permanent teachers opportunities to replace absent teachers and take on different assignments such as co-teaching, supervision, or support.

  • 61.A multi-level career structure is a career structure with several career levels formally defined by a set of skills and/or responsibilities. Career levels are usually structured in terms of ascending complexity, greater responsibility, and a higher salary. According to a 2021 Eurydice report on teachers in Europe, 15 EU countries have implemented a multi-level career structure: Bulgaria, Estonia, Ireland, France, Croatia, Cyprus, Latvia, Lithuania, Hungary, Malta, Poland, Romania, Slovenia, Slovakia, and Sweden.Monitor Toolbox Teachers’dashboard

  • 62.Belgium, Czechia, Denmark, Germany, Greece, Spain, Italy, Luxembourg, Austria, Portugal, and Finland (see the 2021 Eurydice report on teachers in Europe). Monitor Toolbox Teachers’dashboard

  • 63.See the 2023 EENEE-NESET report. The EEA strategic framework Working Group on Schools has developed a template for a career framework to be used by EU countries. Six countries participated in the National Career Frameworks project to develop and implement national school career frameworks by engaging in peer learning.

  • 64.In general, modern foreign language teachers are the most mobile of EU teachers. Across the EU, according to TALIS 2018 data, about 70% of modern foreign language teachers had been abroad, most of them for language learning. See the 2023 Eurydice report on language teaching.

  • 65.Total EU staff mobility to other countries increased from 6 314 in 2014 to 78 129 in 2019, and (after dropping to 18 952 in 2020 and 43 020 in 2021) reached a record 112 930 in 2022. This concerns all staff mobility abroad, combining key action 1 and key action 2 mobilities from the 2014-20 programme and key action 1 mobilities from the 2021-27 programme.Monitor Toolbox Teachers’dashboard

  • 66.For a recent analysis of teacher salaries and the factors influencing them, see the OECD’s Education at a Glance 2023.

  • 67.Ranging, for general lower secondary full-time teachers, from almost EUR 13 000 in purchasing power standard (PPS) per year in Latvia, to about EUR 56 000 euro in PPS per year in Germany. In most countries, teacher salaries rise with minimum qualification requirements, so pre-primary teachers earn less, and upper secondary teachers earn more.

  • 68.Data from Denmark show the share of centrally defined statutory salaries. However, as stated in its collective agreements, part of the statutory salaries must be decided at local level.

  • 69.The average number of years required to reach the salary at the top of the range in general lower secondary education ranges from 12 years in Denmark to 42 in Hungary, and at least 33 years in half of the countries for which data are available.