Indicator frameworks for fostering open knowledge practices in science and scholarship
The aim of this report is to contribute to the European vision for Open Science (European Commission 2016) by providing the frameworks for understanding and applying science and technology indicators, defined broadly, to enable the transition from the current scientific and scholarly system towards a more open and inclusive configuration of knowledge practices and infrastructures. Indicators for Open Science will greatly influence the form that Open Science takes since they will influence decisions both in science policy and in knowledge generation. The ambition as formulated above by the... Competitiveness Council in May 2016 requires specific initiatives to develop the right combination of Open Science policies and practices. This report builds on the earlier report on Next Generation Metrics for Open Science (Wilsdon et al. 2017), the Open Science Policy Platform recommendations on next-generation metrics (Hormia-Poutanen et al. 2017), as well as the Mutual Learning Exercises in a number of European countries (Leonelli 2017a, 2017b). In addition, we have studied the state of the art concerning current tools such as the Open Science Monitor (https://ec.europa.eu/info/research-and-innovation/strategy/goals-research-and-innovation-policy/open-science/open-science-monitor_en) and the emerging European Open Science Cloud (Commission High Level Expert Group on the European Open Science Cloud 2016; Ayris et al. 2016). We have also consulted various stakeholder communities by presenting our draft concepts in presentations at the most relevant conferences regarding open science practices (e.g. ESOF 2018, Nordic Bibliometrics 2018, DEFF 2019).