Technologies based on Artificial Photosynthesis (AP) offer the potential to deliver sustainable “solar” alternatives to fossil fuels, which are storable and transportable, and can thus respond to the problem of intermittency of other solar, wind and marine energy technologies. AP research has intensified over the last decade, pursuing multiple approaches or “pathways” that each have their own relative advantages and challenges. However, as most AP technologies are still at a low level of technology readiness, it is currently not possible to identify those AP pathways and specific technologies... offering the greatest promise for future industrial implementation. The study argues, accordingly, that possible public support should retain an approach that, for the time being, keeps Europe’s AP options open. The proposed roadmap for support for AP technology development, which could be supported under Horizon 2020, foresees actions to address current gaps in scientific knowledge and technology capabilities, while scaling-up the size of projects through the implementation of pilot projects and demonstrator projects that can validate the viability of AP technologies at a commercial scale. Europe occupies a frontline position in AP research, with 60% of the estimated 150 leading global research groups located in Europe. However, AP research in Europe is relatively less wellfunded than elsewhere, notably in the US and Japan. European research efforts are also fragmented, driven by national-level strategies and research programmes. Therefore, the proposed roadmap integrates actions to support improved networking and cooperation within Europe and possibly at a wider international-level. In turn, improved coordination of national research efforts could be achieved through the elaboration of a common European AP technology strategy aimed at positioning European industry as a leader in the AP technology field.