Equity and inclusion
The share of underachievement in reading, maths and science (combined) among 15 year-olds in the lowest quarter of the index for economic, social and cultural status (ESCS). The two comparators are (1) the country average share of underachievement and (2) the share of underachievement among the highest quarter of the ESCS index. JRC calculations based on PISA data from the OECD. ().
A closer look
The main indicator can be broken down by sex and language spoken at home. In terms of inclusion, links to other EU-level indicator domains are important (e.g. the disaggregation of early leavers from education and training  and of tertiary educational attainment ).
Share of out-of-school children (UOE), measuring the share of 15-year-olds who are not enrolled in school.
Younger age bracket (IEA TIMSS), measuring underachievement rates in maths and science (combined) among fourth graders by parents’ highest level of educational attainment.
Student expectations (OECD PISA), measuring the share of students who expect to complete tertiary education among the lowest and highest quarter of the ESCS index.
School segregation (OECD PISA), measuring the extent to which students from the lowest quarter of socioeconomic status are concentrated in the same schools.