Unlike the common and extended idea that mathematics is an isolated and somehow lonely subject, research in this field, over the years, especially in recent ones, is continuously disproving this statement. Mathematics is probably much closer to real life than many other disciplines. It is playing an important role in countries’ economies and is key in the current data science era. To date, the European Research Council (ERC) has supported 377 projects in mathematics, representing more than EUR 600 million of investment in this research area. A sample of these projects is highlighted in this... brochure published on the occasion of the International Congress of Mathematicians 2018 (ICM 2018), taking place from 1 to 9 August in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil).