“Research Careers in Europe” is a study with an evaluative character. It addresses the following three specific topics: 1) perception and promotion of research careers; 2) dual careers in research; 3) research career restart. The key insights and conclusions presented in this report, as well as most of the study recommendations were developed to help the European Commission to improve the design and implementation of the Horizon 2020 Marie Skłodowska-Curie actions (MSCA). This programme aims to further contribute to stimulating commitment towards research careers and to support attractive... employment and working conditions for researchers in Europe. The evidence for drafting this study was mainly drawn from the quantitative and qualitative data collected through an extensive survey programme. In particular, 3,904 individual researchers, 1,572 representatives of research organisations and a number of national stakeholders (National Contact Points for the MSCA, research funding organisations, etc.) were surveyed by the study team. The study also benefited from the qualitative data collected through interviews with EUlevel officials and people involved in practical implementation of relevant initiatives (i.e. programmes and schemes dedicated to addressing the dual career or career restart issues, as well as promotion of research career promotion) at national level. Further evidence was drawn from 10 case studies and extensive desk research (i.e. the analysis of other relevant studies and documentation published by researchers, organisations implementing relevant initiatives and other actors in the field) carried out by the study team. The study was carried out by PPMI (Lithuania), in close collaboration with two subcontracted companies, namely INOVA+ (Portugal) and CARSA (Spain).