Applying the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union in law and policymaking at national level
The European Union has been equipped with its own bill of rights – the Charter of Fundamental Rights – since 2000. It became legally binding in 2009, and has the same legal value as the EU treaties. Those familiar with the main principles of EU law can usually quickly recite that the Charter is always binding on the EU, and binding on Member States whenever they are 'implementing EU law'. But the reality is that, even in expert circles, what does and does not fall within the Charter’s field of application is not always well understood. This handbook aims to foster better understanding of the... Charter, including when it applies in law and policymaking.