The migration and integration of Moroccan and Ukrainian migrants in Italy
Policies and measures
The present report looks at the integration of Moroccan and Ukrainian migrants living in Italy. Beyond being quantitatively important in the Italian context, these two groups differ largely in terms of demographic characteristics, migration patterns and insertion modalities but also with respect to emigration and diaspora policies. Two core aspects of integration are emphasized in this report. First, integration processes are evaluated from a multi-dimensional perspective. Second, the role played by origin (and destination) country determinants in facilitating or constraining integration is... investigated. Origin determinants include the ties between migrants and their country of origin, country-fixed characteristics, diaspora and emigration policies at origin and the engagement and role of non-state organisations. To this aim, three sets of data have been employed, making this report largely multidisciplinary: an in-depth analytical description of the legal and political frameworks at origin and destination, a quantitative analysis and an explorative qualitative survey. This report finds evidence that integration levels, determinants and, specifically, the role of origin factors vary largely across dimensions. In the labour market, both Moroccan and Ukrainian migrants living in Italy show high levels of integration. These extremely positive performances seem due more to destination than origin factors – namely Italy’s labour market specificities and migration history. Conversely, origin determinants presumably have a lower impact. In addition, the role played by NGOs appears relevant in helping migrants find employment – not good employment or well-remunerated employment but just employment. In the education dimension, things differ. At an international level, Ukrainians living in Italy show good levels of integration once controlled for natives’ performance. Origin determinants – in terms of conditions at home – thus seem to prevail here. Not surprisingly, the degree of integration in the “access to citizenship” dimension is connected to the degree of openness/restrictiveness of host citizenship laws and, accordingly, to the length of presence in the country. Our results confirm that Italy is still one of the countries where getting citizenship is one of the main constraints for migrants in both recent communities (Ukrainians) and well-established ones (Moroccans). Finally, cultural integration is a main obstacle to Moroccan integration, while Ukrainians are also found to be in a difficult position with respect to social and political integration. In terms of ties between migrants and their country of origin, a micro-level analysis confirms a very clear pattern: the lower the (cultural, economic, political, social) ties, the higher the level of integration. This applies – to a different extent – to all dimensions and types of ties.