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The purpose of this report is to provide relevant context information in view of the assessment of international protection status determination, including refugee status and subsidiary protection. Among others, the report is intended to inform the development of Country Guidance on Somalia (2022). The report provides background information and mapping of relevant state and non-state actors/conflict dynamics in Somalia, upon which subsequent reports will build. These forthcoming EASO COI reports will focus on the Somalia Security Situation, Targeted Profiles and Key Socio-Economic Indicators and are due to be published later in 2021. This report provides an overview of the main state and non-state actors in the Somali context, including their armed forces, at federal as well as at member state level. Details on relevant dynamics, territorial control/influence, governance as well as access to justice are also provided. Finally, the report provides an overview about the human rights conduct and abuses of main armed groups/security forces.