In many ways, the EU is growing more socially and culturally diverse, which in itself is a cause for celebration. As Article 3 of the Treaty on European Union states: ‘The EU shall respect its rich cultural and linguistic diversity’. The same Treaty Article says that ‘the EU shall combat discrimination’, and ‘promote economic and social cohesion’. But diversity can also present challenges to social cohesion. Migration, from both inside and outside the EU, increases our cultural diversity while inequalities, particularly where the benefits of globalisation are not being equally shared, increase... economic disparity. In February 2019, Le Monde reported that in a survey of 1 400 gilets jaunes it was found that 74 % lived in ‘economic precarity’, of which 17 % earned less than EUR 1 136 a month. The top concern for those surveyed was the economic impact of globalisation, which 87 % felt was extremely negative. Perhaps surprisingly, migration was not among the concerns they raised. At EU level, recent data show that around 113 million Europeans (over 20 %) are at risk of poverty or social exclusion, and 15 % experience material deprivation. This means, for example, being unable to afford a monthly social event with friends or family, an internet connection or regular leisure activities. Being deprived of such social connections in turn impacts cultural participation and societal cohesion. In 2017, 40 % of Europeans surveyed felt that Member States were distant in terms of shared values. Culture topped the list of factors most likely to create a feeling of community, ahead of history, geography and religion. However, more than a third of Europeans said that they did not participate at all in cultural activities.