Analysing provision, take-up and impact : final report - Study
The value of VET mobility to address issues of quality and global competitiveness of vocational education and training (VET) in Europe, its attractiveness to learners, as well as the employability of VET learners, has been acknowledged for more than two decades at both EU policy and programme levels. At policy level, while Member States retain the primary responsibility for the organisation of VET, their work is supported and complemented through EU-level policies and frameworks which include the promotion of mobility of VET staff and learners (Treaty, Art. 166). Mobility in education and the... labour market is notably one of the key values of Europe, as the Rome Declaration of 25 March 2017 reaffirms. The current framework for policy action and policy debate on VET mobility in Europe is underpinned by various strategic EU policy documents among which the 2010 Bruges Communiqué that emphasised the need for national VET systems to attract learners from across Europe and the world in order to remain up-to-date and competitive or subsequent 2015 Riga Conclusions that set new medium-term deliverables for the period 2015-2020. At programme level, mobility in VET was first supported at EU level through the Joint Programme (1964-1991) that aimed to foster the exchange of young workers. This was followed by the implementation of PETRA II programme. In more recent years, the Lifelong Learning Programme (and Leonardo da Vinci VET sub-programme) and ongoing Erasmus+ have supported VET mobility through various actions and related funding opportunities. In parallel to EU actions, a number of initiatives have been taken by countries, regions or organisations. However, those have not been the object of evidence-based research in most cases. This study was therefore commissioned by DG EMPL to gain insights on non-Erasmus+ VET mobility programmes/schemes within the 33 Erasmus+ programme countries4. More specifically the study aims to offer an overview of their key features and perceived impacts at beneficiary level (i.e. learners, staff, organisations and beyond) as well as to identify key commonalities and differentiators with Erasmus+ VET mobility actions. The study has also been carried out at a time when the Multiannual Financial Framework (MFF) and the next generations of EU programmes (including Erasmus+) for 2021-2027 were being negotiated. In this context, the methodology followed has also been designed to offer recommendations on how the quality and effectiveness of VET mobility across Europe could be improved, in this remit, through possible areas for action at EU and country level.