Study on the economic benefits of marine protected areas
Literature review analysis - Study
This report reviews the existing evidence of economic benefits generated from Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) and other Spatial Protection Measures (SPMs) to fisheries, maritime tourism and other blue economy sectors in Europe. It also identifies and critically analyses studies which have attempted to compare costs and benefits of MPAs and SPMs, and collates and synthesises research and known case studies about so-called 'de facto refuges'. It does not provide a detailed review of the costs of MPAs and SPMs. MPAs are designated to provide protection for marine species and habitats while SPMs, as... understood in this review, include other spatially explicit measures not necessarily designated for conservation purposes that can be of a temporal or permanent nature. De facto refuges are areas where access and activities are restricted for reasons other than conservation or natural resource management, for example for security reasons. The review focuses, in falling order of relevance, on evidence from Europe, its Overseas Countries and Territories (OCTs) and Outermost Regions (ORs) and from geographically transferrable areas elsewhere around the world. To the extent that relevant evidence has been identified from elsewhere, this has been included primarily to provide context. The review focusses on high quality evidence demonstrating blue economy benefits – evidence which only infers economic benefits based on environmental evidence is not included. Further details about the scope of this literature review are outlined in Chapters 2 and 3.