The ESPAD validity study in four countries in 2013
The second ESPAD methodology study was carried out in 2013 in four countries (Iceland, Italy, Moldova and Ukraine), following a first study carried out in seven countries in 1998. The goal was to study the validity of the ESPAD questionnaire and to test some possible new questions for the 2015 ESPAD data collection. Since this was a methodological study, and there was no intention to measure substance use habits in a geographically defined area, participating classes were not randomly sampled. A total of 1 138 students took part — 243 in Iceland, 199 in Italy, 266 in Montenegro and 430 in... Ukraine. Nine in ten students in sampled classes were present and participated in the data collection. Only five students refused to take part. The average time students took to answer the questionnaire was 27 minutes. In a first stage the students answered a questionnaire that included many of the ESPAD core questions and also the possible new questions that were being tested. This was done in the classrooms in the same way as for regular ESPAD data collections. Each student placed the answered questionnaire in an individual envelope that he/she brought unsealed to an individual interview directly following the session in the classroom. The reason it was unsealed was that the students needed to consult the questionnaire during the interview, which made it necessary to organise the interview room in such a way that the interviewer could not see what the students had answered. In the interview the students were asked which questions, if any, they found difficult to answer, how some key variable questions were understood, how honestly they had answered the questions and how honestly they thought that their classmates had answered.