This report offers a snapshot of the status of nanotechnology in the context of the environment. Environment is defined here as the totality of all the external conditions affecting the life, development and survival of an organism. Environmental degradation in terms of water, air and soil pollution, depletion of resources and climate change are a threat to human health and well-being and an increasing cost to society. Nanotechnology is one of the emerging technologies that can help to prevent or remediate environmental degradation and improve monitoring (direct effect), or lead to reduced... energy and resource consumption (indirect effect). This is described as the role of nanotechnology for the environment. Introducing new substances, such as nanomaterials and nano-particles with unknown characteristics, into the environment may have negative environmental and health effects. This is described as the role of nanotechnology in the environment. Aspects of nanotechnology both for and in the environment are covered in this report.