Upon request by the JURI Committee, this in-depth analysis compares national rules and practices governing expert reports in the civil law area. All EU Member States expect experts to be competent, independent and impartial. The method of recruitment and rights and obligations of experts still vary. The lack of public registers is an obstacle to their appointment. Only judges can authorise an expert report and generally define the mission, but it is not the case everywhere that they are given the powers to oversee how the process is carried out. It is not universally the case that EU Member... States require experts to respect the adversarial principle, and they do not require expert reports to be structured in any particular way.