Environmental crime is a serious crime, often committed by organised crime groups, that affects society as a whole, as its impact is felt not only in the health of humans and animals but also in the quality of air, soil and water. The EU Serious and Organised Crime Threat Assessment 2013 (SOCTA) identified environmental crime as a specific emerging threat that requires intensified monitoring. Environmental crime also often involves a cross-border dimension, and the increase of international trade and the abolition of border controls within the Schengen area add to the scope of the problem.... Despite the potentially grave consequences of environmental crime, particularly in the areas of illegal trafficking of waste and trafficking of endangered species, its seriousness is still often underestimated at national and international level. In this context, Eurojust took the initiative in 2013 to launch the ‘Strategic Project on Environmental Crime’. The goal of this report is to summarise the findings of the Strategic Project. It highlights the main problems encountered by the national authorities in prosecuting environmental crime and attempts to present suggestions for addressing some difficulties, particularly those linked to cross-border cooperation. Another goal of this report is to raise awareness among practitioners, policy makers and legislators of the necessity to improve cooperation within the European Union and internationally in this important area.