This study brings together work-in-progress on a long-term project to identify and analyse the 'cost of non-Europe' in a number of policy fields. This concept, first pioneered by the European Parliament in the 1980s, is used here to quantify the potential efficiency gains in today's European economy from pursuing a series of policy initiatives recently advocated by the Parliament - from a wider and deeper digital single market to better coordinated national and European policies for defence and development. The benefits may be measured in additional GDP generated or a more rational use of... public resources. The analysis so far suggests that the European economy could be boosted by some 800 billion euro - or six per cent of current GDP - by such measures over time. The study is intended as a contribution to the growing discussion about the European Union’s policy priorities for the coming five-year institutional cycle, from 2014 to 2019.