Cooperatives and social enterprises are recognised for their resilience to cyclical and structural economic changes and their capacity to contribute to local and regional economic development, including social inclusion. In recent years, attention has increasingly focused on their ability to further the EU policy goals of creating more and better jobs, countering the trend towards non-standard employment and fostering EU integration following the 2008 global financial crisis. Based on case studies from organisations in five EU Member States, this report investigates the contribution of... European cooperatives and social enterprises to job creation and retention. It describes the characteristics of the jobs created and retained as well as outlining the various support measures used by organisations to develop and innovate. It offers some policy pointers aimed at supporting the delivery of these jobs in cooperatives and social enterprises.