Competence in mathematics is integral to a wide range of disciplines, professions and areas of life. This Eurydice report reveals crucial elements of the policies and practices that shape mathematics instruction in European education systems, focusing on reforms of mathematics curricula, teaching and assessment methods, as well as teacher education. The report also explores how countries tackle low achievement and increase students’ motivation to learn mathematics. It is based on an extensive literature review on mathematics education, main findings from the international surveys PISA and... TIMSS and includes the results of a Eurydice pilot survey (SITEP) on the content of initial teacher education programmes. It covers 31 countries (all EU Member States, plus Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Turkey) and takes the reference year 2010/11.