To support countries in reforming their research and innovation systems, the Directorate-General for Research & Innovation (DG RTD) of the European Commission set up a Policy Support Facility (PSF) under the European Framework Programme for Research & Innovation ‘Horizon 2020’. It aims to support Member States and associated countries in improving their national science, technology and innovation systems. The Lithuanian Government expressed its interest in receiving specific support under the PSF on how to strengthen, attract and assist science-business cooperation and... innovation-oriented foreign direct investment (FDI). The PSF expert panel, of four independent experts, worked from January to September 2017 including two missions to Vilnius to consult with stakeholders. The expert’s key policy recommendations, grouped into three themes, call for a more balanced policy mix to address the “gaps and inconsistencies” holding back wider-scale science-business cooperation. The panel also set out a range of options to help attract a more diverse range of innovation oriented foreign direct investments. Each recommendation is structured to provide detailed guidance, a timeframe and illustrative examples to inspire the required changes.