Grade retention during compulsory education in Europe
Regulations and statistics
The study compares how grade retention making pupils repeat a school year is applied in schools across Europe and produces an inventory of the legislations and practices in place. It shows that those practices vary greatly between countries: whether a child has to repeat a year at school depends more on the educational culture concerned and teacher appraisal than on the child's performance. It was produced for the Commission by the Eurydice network and covers 31 countries (all EU Member States, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Turkey).