A comparative look into 15- year-olds’ school engagement, effort and perseverance in the European Union - Study
Besides assuring the transmission of traditional competences – often proxied with standardised test scores and grades – schools are expected to contribute to young people’s development of non-traditional competences, such as engagement, effort and perseverance. Little is known about these competences. Their theoretical definition is still disputed; their operationalisation is challenging and their measurement is heavily affected by the lack of adequate data. This underdevelopment is mostly due to the fact that interest in this topic is very recent. However, in the past few years, awareness of... the importance of nontraditional competences for life outcomes and for full participation in society has experienced an unprecedented surge in both the scientific literature and the policy debate. Consequently, the need to investigate this topic has become increasingly pressing. This study has the goal of contributing to this endeavour by providing some – necessarily incomplete – answers to the following questions. How can computer-generated data help improve the measurement of these competences? How are European students performing in terms of non-traditional competences? Are there significant country differences in how students perform? What are the most important individual and school level determinants of these competences? How can education policy effectively intervene? The study addresses these very salient questions following the publication of computer-generated data of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2015. Log-files are the traces that students leave on the computer when taking the test. Log-files store a wealth of data, concerning students’ behaviour during the test (such as response time, actions taken to solve a given task, etc.), making it possible to extract meaningful information on students’ non-traditional competences.