Fundamental rights at Europe's southern sea borders
Each year, hundreds of men, women and children board overcrowded and ill-equipped boats in an attempt to reach Europe, a phenomenon that started in the late 1980s after European countries tightened immigration policies and made it more difficult to enter such countries in a regular way. This FRA report examines the conditions at Europe's southern sea borders with respect to the most fundamental rights of a person, the right to life and the right not to be sent back to torture, persecution or inhuman treatment. It looks at sea border surveillance and disembarkation procedures, as well as... general issues such as EU policy, training and Frontex-coordinated operations, and examines practices across the EU Member States researched — Cyprus, Greece, Italy, Malta and Spain. By mapping the fundamental rights challenges at Europe's southern sea borders and by identifying promising practices, this report is intended to offer advice to EU policy makers as well as practitioners at both the EU and Member State level.