Study on Baltic offshore wind energy cooperation under BEMIP
Final report - Undersøgelse
Metadata for publikationen
The potential for offshore wind power in the Baltic Sea is substantial. The competitiveness of offshore wind generation varies markedly across the Baltic Sea area, mainly due to wind conditions, connection costs and market values. Especially the southern part of the Baltic Sea shows attractive sites due to higher market values for offshore wind power generation. Thus, there is a scope for better utilization of the most attractive sites for offshore wind power through a cooperative, regional approach. The market and grid modelling show that offshore wind power in the best sites can be... competitive already in 2030, and that offshore wind power can play a significant role in the transition of the Baltic Sea Energy system in accordance with the EU long-term decarbonisation strategy under the UN IPCC Paris Agreement. Cooperation on offshore wind power projects as cross-border renewable energy (RES) projects can realise substantial economic benefits through the achievement of renewable energy targets at lower cost. Additional benefits can be realised by integrating the cooperation on offshore wind power in regional grid planning. Substantial investments in onshore grids are expected to become necessary regardless of the development of the offshore wind power resources. By taking offshore wind power deployment into account early on in grid planning, substantial efficiency gains can be obtained. The development of advanced offshore hubs, connecting wind power to two or more Member States, could also be beneficial, and this option should be explored. Efficient regional deployment of Baltic Sea wind power resources requires that national administrative and regulatory barriers such as inefficient and non-transparent licencing procedures and the lack of or poor data for maritime spatial planning, are addressed. In addition, regional cooperative solutions on tendering and support mechanisms, on grid connection charges and cost sharing mechanisms, and on integrated regional grid planning, are important pre-requisites for harnessing the offshore wind power potential of the region. In order to achieve efficiency gains through coordination, a common long-term vision has to be agreed that can be used to identify crucial investments in generation and grid infrastructure, along with appropriate measures and incentives to realise them.